IOM's key interventions aim to support the humanitarian response through national capacity building and systems strengthening on health, protection, counter-trafficking, the management of population displacement and displacement settings (CCCM), as well as strengthening the collection and availability of data on population vulnerabilities and displacement to inform rapid response and decision making. Key expected results from these interventions include establishing an evidence-base to inform policy and programming decisions, providing improved access for displaced populations to adequate life-saving social services and protection assistance in all phases of the response. Furthermore, IOM aims to contribute to strengthening community resilience and access to durable solutions in a timely and dignified manner.
Communities affected by drought and floods in the country include men, women, boys and girls. The drought has disproportionately affected adolescents and youth, many of whom have had to drop out of school to help fend for the family.
There has been an increase in various protection concerns amongst people who migrate to mitigate the impact of the droughts. IOM will support the provision of prevention and awareness-raising on GBV and counter trafficking in the at-risk populations as well as providing support towards the protection of GBV survivors and victims of human trafficking. Within displacement settings, IOM will work in concert with other stakeholders to strengthen prevention and protection measures on GBV, prevention and reporting of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), information on services available for survivors and victims of human trafficking, capacity building of state and non-state actors on protection of GBV survivors and victims of human trafficking, as well as providing technical and direct assistance to affected persons. The targeted state and non-state actors will be guided by the provisions of the national referral mechanisms and will include stakeholders involved in the provision of health, mental health, legal and paralegal services, shelter and mental health and psychosocial support. In acute displacement settings, protection services may not immediately be available, IOM will work with stakeholders to establish clear referral mechanisms, while engaging other sectors on the eventual provision of these services within access to the affected populations.
The drought and flood crises throughout the country may precipitate population displacements which may require management. IOM will support the strengthening of national and sub-national capacities to management population displacement through capacity building on CCCM. IOM will also cascade capacity building to community leadership structures on CCCM as these are often the first responders in crises.
The health services in the country are already experiencing strain due to a multiplicity of factors including staffing and drugs shortages. In emergency settings especially when people get displaced, the health needs are compounded. Displaced populations and those affected by population mobility experience a myriad of health needs, given the prevailing public health context in the country which is characterised by a high burden of communicable diseases. IOM intends to support the government to strengthen the provision of basic and life-saving health interventions to populations affected by disasters, including those displaced. Health support will include strengthening communicable diseases preventive and response measures, strengthening the provision of sexual and reproductive health and primary health care services, as needed, as well as strengthening continuity of care for persons on chronic medication especially those who may be affected by sudden displacements.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
Populations in need of support in building their resilience and preventing crises include refugees, internally displaced persons and vulnerable migrants.
IOM will act in concert with relevant stakeholders to support durable solutions for persons affected by displacement. This will include activities towards community stabilisation and building social cohesion between displaced and host communities, as well as facilitating the successful return and reintegration of the displaced populations. Furthermore, IOM will support interventions on community resilience and preparedness for future disasters through community capacity enhancements, community-based disaster management and responses, and community early warning systems.
The National Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit (DMMU), which coordinates all disaster preparedness and response in the country, currently does not have a real-time system for tracking population displacements. Reports are compiled by sending teams to investigate events and provide reports on returns to the national level, and this process tends to delay the response.
IOM, in partnership with various state and non-state stakeholders. will collaborate on the development and rolling-out of a web-based system for displacement tracking that will provide real-time information for decision-making and planning for the implementation of recovery solutions for crisis-affected populations. Furthermore, IOM will invest in capacity building at the national and sub-national level to track and report displacements using the established system.
Support interventions towards a peaceful coexistence between displaced persons and host communities, including through community dialogue, equitable representation in community life and equitable access to shared resources. IOM will also support activities geared towards promoting the socio-cultural adaption of the displaced populations using sports and culture as a medium.
Communities living along drought and flood-prone geographical regions require support to be better able to anticipate the occurrence of these hazards, take preventative measures to minimise their risk and respond effectively to prevent the loss of life and assets.
IOM, in collaboration with other stakeholders such as FAO and WFP, will support community-based disaster risk management measures aimed at helping communities map their hazards and develop community prevention, early warning and response measures. Communities living in flood-prone areas will be engaged to explore measures to prevent risks as well as strengthening community resilience and early warning systems. For instance, communities living along the plains of the Zambezi river have indigenous knowledge systems linked to the water levels in the Zambezi. Once the waters reach a certain point, the traditional leaders call an assembly for all people to gather and cross over to higher grounds, where they stay for several months until the water level goes down. A traditional ceremony has evolved around this system that is called "Kuomboka". IOM will seek to foster and tap into such indigenous knowledge systems to build community resilience and preparedness.
This will additionally entail building community capacities to identify hazards, plan for and institute early warning and preparedness measures, including preparing for eventual displacement. IOM will also support the capacity building of community first responders as well as community systems for documentation and tracking of hazards and displacements.
IOM and relevant stakeholders will support measures to strengthen the health systems in hazard-prone areas to be better able to respond to health emergencies during crises.
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.