The overall objective of IOM's strategy is to support displaced persons and other affected populations in Mozambique to build resilience and progress towards sustainable solutions to displacement while ensuring a continuous response to critical humanitarian needs and rapid response capacities in case of a new disaster and crisis. Recovery and resilience in Mozambique will be facilitated through an effective and locally owned framework that addresses the lifesaving and longer-term needs of affected populations. Ultimately, the plan aims at establishing the basis for recovery and crisis prevention in communities and continuing being a key partner of the Government of Mozambique.
Internally displaced populations in resettlement sites and host communities affected by natural disasters and insecurity, as well as people at risk of displacement due to natural disasters and crisis.
The situation on the ground remains precarious considering the protracted humanitarian needs resulting from various natural disasters in 2019 (cyclones) and 2020 (floods that affected 150,000 people). Moreover, conflict-induced displacement resulting from a deterioration of the security environment in Northern districts of Mozambique has compounded these already difficult conditions and humanitarian needs. As a result, continued camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) and rapid responses are critically required in 2020. Key programmatic areas include:
- Deploying CCCM mobile teams and providing capacity-building to government counterparts and community groups;
- Conducting site safety audits;
- Continued coordination of CCCM services and CCCM Cluster coordination support;
- Supporting community participation activities;
- Reception management for new arrivals in displacement hotspots in conflict-affected areas;
- Registration in accommodation centres in case of evacuations or engagements;
- Plot demarcation and site planning including hydrological analysis and mapping of risks in displacement locations, site improvements with care and maintenance activities, and infrastructure work;
- As part of its humanitarian site improvement activities, IOM will support labour-intensive small infrastructure works (such as enhancements to bridges or pathways to improve access to services or farmland demarcation) and care/maintenance of communal safe spaces in prioritised sites. This will also contribute towards reestablishing community networks, support communities to recover their collective social life, and increase social support to access essential services, such as health and protection;
- In Cabo Delgado, in addition to the work in accommodation centres and resettlement sites, IOM will deploy rapid response multi-sectoral teams to ensure referrals and reception services to those affected by insecurity. This approach will be guided by needs and movement flows of the IDPs to ensure IOM is able to coordinate and advocate for services and referrals.
IOM will also ensure core coordination mechanisms are in place and continue to adequately support the coordination of service providers, advocacy and information management.
IOM will continue working in the resettlement sites and communities to support the cyclone and insecurity affected populations with access to protection services. Through its integrated approach targeting priority displacement sites and areas receiving new arrivals, the multi-sector approach will include protection and mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) to respond to the needs of affected households and the most vulnerable individuals in areas identified and prioritised through the CCCM, Shelter and Health components of the IOM portfolio. Key programmatic interventions include:
- Implementation of protection audits;
- Strengthening gender-based violence (GBV) and protection referrals;
- Capacity building of government social workers;
- Deployment of protection focal points in the sites and support to partners on gender-based violence (GBV), trafficking in persons (TiP), child protection, and protection from sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA);
- Construction of protection desks in displacement hotspots;
- Support the reference groups on child protection and combating TiP in affected districts to have adequate capacities to assist victims of violence, including children;
- Where capacities are not yet adequate, IOM will provide direct assistance to victims of violence.
IOM will continue assisting people living in crisis-affected communities with the provision of MHPSS in crisis, particularly in communities affected by various trauma and multiple displacements. Key programmatic interventions include:
- Direct community based psychosocial support and services through the deployment of MHPSS mobile teams;
- Identification and referral of cases in need of specialised services (for mental health, health and protection services);
- Capacity building on community-based MHPSS in emergencies and psychological first aid (PFA) to partner organisations and government counterparts;
- Implementation of culturally appropriate structured recreational activities for adults, teenagers and children. The proposed psychosocial intervention will provide community members to identify the main factors of personal and collective uneasiness and stress. This will be done so that they can express and elaborate on grievances and painful experiences that become triggers of tensions and frustrations, and to engage in meaningful communication and interactions with other members of their communities.
Access to basic health services is limited by large distances, with a high number of sites being far away (up to 40km) from the nearest public health facility and outreach mobile clinic services have been very limited.
In Cabo Delgado province, an increasing number of health facilities are not functional due to a lack of staff and medical supplies, while their catchment population is increasing due to displacement. The districts’ health services have limited capacity and logistical resources to fully integrate newly established communities into their regular outreach services schedule.
Key programmatic interventions include:
- Continuous support to district health services to implement mobile outreach services to highly affected and hard-to-reach communities, including logistics support (such as fuel, vehicles/boats and medical supplies) and technical assistance in the districts affected by natural disasters and conflicts.
- Continuous strengthening of the continuum of care, especially for HIV and tuberculosis services in displacement affected communities, through community-based outreach to both identify and reintegrate patients into care and treatment. In addition, IOM will conduct active screenings and household contact tracing to prevent new infections, timely identify new cases and enrollment into adequate treatment regimens.
- Coordination and capacity building of government and humanitarian partners to mainstream prevention and management of HIV in an emergency context.
The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) remains the main provider of data to support response planning, preparedness and response interventions. Information on the conditions and needs of affected communities and displacement sites (resettlement locations) remains of key-importance to address current Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) indicators and identify priorities for the different sectoral responses. IOM Mozambique will continue to implement the DTM countrywide, targeting different types of displacement. Products will be adapted to provide relevant and up to date information for the different scenarios and geographic coverage. DTM information packages will include data snapshots (maps and timelines), displacement site profiles (demographics, sectoral needs and gaps), GIS online products and overview reports, as well as rapid flash updates in case of sudden displacement of populations.
Key programmatic interventions include:
- Mobility tracking tools in locations with rapid mobility flows: DTM will deploy emergency tracking tools (ETT) to capture locations and rapid population movements, and mobility tracking tools (MTT) to produce baseline snapshots on internal displacement movements, disaster risks, population needs and vulnerabilities, and sectoral gaps inside and outside site settings.
- Multisector Need Assessments: In Idai affected areas, routinely collected DTM data is accessible to humanitarian partners and local authorities covering 76 resettlements sites in all 6 affected provinces.
- Thematic surveys: These will be implemented to provide a deeper understanding of what the intentions/perceptions of populations of concern are and to describe a communities’ socio-economic characteristics. DTM surveys are based on representative sampling methods using DTM baseline datasets as reference. Thematic surveys include village assessments (VA) and return intention surveys (RIS). VA will cover both affected and return areas and will capture the conditions necessary to pursue preferred durable solutions, coping strategies and needs. RIS data will be collected at the displacement site-level aiming to identify IDPs duration and reasons of displacement and intentions to return to locations of origins.
- Issuance of rapid need assessments and flash reports in the case of sudden onset emergencies.
Given the slow pace of durable housing construction, as well as limited partner presence, critical humanitarian needs still persist in Idai and Kenneth affected areas, even as the overall humanitarian response shifts into the recovery phase. Across all the cyclone and flood-affected areas and host communities, IOM has observed rudimentary shelter recovery by around 40% of the population, though most vulnerable households who lack resources to purchase materials remain in extremely basic and sub-standard shelters, highly vulnerable to rains and extreme weather events.
Considering the high protracted humanitarian needs in resettlements sites and host communities and to support households in building the bridge and building their resilience capacities, IOM shelter approaches will focus on priority locations together with its protection, health and CCCM components.
Key programmatic interventions:
- Provision of reinforcement kits and the distribution of different type of shelter upgrading kits depending on the shelter conditions and vulnerability. The materials may include items such as corrugated iron sheeting, concrete hollow blocks, timber sections and bamboo, compressed stabilised earth blocks (CSEB), and lime-blocks. These materials will enable households to start building core houses which will be supplemented by materials which can be locally sourced at little to no cost from surrounding rural areas.
- Distribution of roofing kits for partially damaged housing.
- Technical assistance and trainings, using “build-back-better” approaches and mainstreaming protection and disaster risk reduction.
- Upgrading of lightweight shelters, in particular in resettlement sites.
- Vouchers for shelter and market fairs. The operational modality includes the provision of conditional voucher assistance to support households living in resettlement sites to have access to more durable shelter materials.
- In case of new emergencies, distribution of prepositioned items that are in line with the INGC standard guidelines which includes 2 tarps (4m x 6m), a toolkit, a solar lamp, soap and a bucket.
The shelter response will target communities based on a selection criterion that includes damage extent, household vulnerability, coverage/gap analysis while ensuring there are no overlap or duplication with other partner organisations. IOM will conduct household level damage and needs assessments as well as market assessments in order to tailor the means of support.
All IOM Mozambique's emergency and non-food items (NFI) shelter assistance will be implemented in combination with the technical assistance and trainings to beneficiaries to ensure that the items distributed are contributing to safer shelters through improved bracing and usage of materials. Monitoring and evaluation through post-distribution monitoring mechanisms will be implemented in case of a blanket distribution to ensure replenishment and replacement of items to support longer-term usage by beneficiaries.
In case of emergency and to support coordination efforts, IOM will also deploy coordination support to assist the Shelter Cluster to conduct rapid need assessment and provide technical coordination assistance.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
Beneficiaries targeted under this objective are internally displaced populations and affected population in host communities. This pillar of intervention includes durable solutions, shelter recovery as well as peace-building and preservation, using an integrated lens to address the drivers and impact of crises and displacement.
Affected communities are facing significant challenges in accessing basic health, mental health and social services. The current health and social system capacities remain overstretched. IOM’s intervention will aim to restore communities’ health capacity and public health services’ delivery in areas affected by natural disasters and conflict. IOM will continue supporting district health services to implement mobile outreach services to highly affected and hard-to-reach communities, with logistics support and technical assistance in the districts affected by natural disasters and conflicts.
Key programmatic activities include:
- Technical and logistics support to local health services to increase their capacity to provide regular and sustained outreach services to hard-to-reach communities.
- Capacity building of community health committees to identify priority concerns and barriers to access, and strengthen the demand and use of preventative and curative health services.
- Restoring the continuum of care, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) patients, through community-based outreach activities with awareness-raising, intense case finding as well the identification and reintegration of lost-to-follow-up patients into care and treatment.
- Psychosocial support to vulnerable patients, including HIV and TB cases, for treatment compliance, adherence, and continuum care.
- Close coordination with local health and social services and partners to ensure appropriate support for HIV/TB patients, chronically ill and other vulnerable groups, such as nutritional support and social protection.
- Specific sexual and reproductive health and rights interventions targeting women, adolescents and young people to address the specific vulnerabilities of this group.
IOM plans to support the cyclone and conflict-affected populations living in the resettlement sites and affected communities through preventive and recovery measures using a holistic approach. This will be done as part of its comprehensive framework and engagement on durable solutions to end displacement situation of individuals, households and communities, or other groups displaced by a crisis, through the provision of immediate and longer-term support, in line with a relevant framework on displacement.
Key programmatic interventions include:
- Implementing safe settlement sites and services approaches in 40 prioritised sites for local integration, out of 76 sites, with a focus on protection, safety and environmental management. Resettlement sites require substantial upgrades and improvements, including large drainage work, lighting, and the rehabilitation and construction of community infrastructures to support local integration.
- Supporting shelter housing recovery targeting 25,000 families in sites and in host communities through an array of housing options, such as: (i) partial repair or reconstruction of damaged houses; (ii) total housing reconstruction; (iii) upgrading of lightweight shelters; (iv) neighbourhood improvements; and (v) voucher assistance. In addition, there will be an emphasis on the integration of safer materials and techniques further generating work opportunities related to construction. The construction of shelters will be achieved through increased access to sustainable livelihoods, technical capacity building activities for shelter construction and durable material production. IOM's shelter assistance aims to be cost-effective by using local architecture, improved designs, and a strong climate-resilient approach.
- Access to sustainable livelihoods.
- Inclusive governance and housing, land and property rights.
- Research, strategy and policy development to understand and address the drivers, root causes and impact of displacement.
Access to comprehensive and consistent information on unmet and resilience needs and vulnerabilities is critical to inform targeted and timely recovery and transition. In Mozambique, the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) is a key source of data and analysis on mobility dimensions and risks in areas of return, resettlement sites and host communities. IOM will support the recovery and transition phase of the response to cyclones and conflicts by analysing the existing DTM data and contribute towards providing evidence base programming and development-oriented outcomes. Through this approach, IOM will assist in providing a more comprehensive view of the context, needs and priorities of affected populations through thematic and household level assessments
Key thematic activities will include:
- Conducting research to identify barriers to achieving durable solutions, to better understand the nature of displacement and to inform evidence-based durable solutions. DTM will collect household-level data related to achieving durable solutions and include intentions and conditions to pursue preferred solutions, coping strategies and needs. At the community-level, DTM will collect data related to durable solutions which will encompass questions examining the capacity of public services and basic infrastructure, social cohesion, resource depletion following the arrival of displaced populations, the level of insecurity at the site and the degree of equitable access.
- Undertaking disaster risk reduction and shelter assessments to support recovery efforts in support of the Government.
IOM will continue assisting people living in resettlement sites and affected communities through community-based and family support, including in areas affected by natural disasters or conflict. This will be done through an integrated mental health and psychosocial (MHPSS) approach, and include protection and preventive measures that seek to encourage integration and conflict resolution within host communities.
Key programmatic interventions will be tailored depending on the context:
- In conflict-affected areas, IOM's MHPSS approach will be geared toward stabilisation activities, psychosocial resilience and supporting protective networks as key factors in promoting dialogue with the communities and preventing violence.
- Natural disasters cause significant psychological and social suffering to affected populations, particularly in the medium to long-term. As aligned with the multisector integrated approach towards more durable solutions, IOM will engage with communities and beneficiaries to: 1) provide sustainable continuity of care with regards to MHPSS services in resettlement sites; 2) strengthened community actors and networks that support an inclusive and confident society, including social integration activities to address identity changes and marginalisation in Sofala and Manica Provinces, and rebuilding relations of trust between displaced populations in resettlement sites and surrounding communities; and 3) community-based organisation capacitated to provide psychosocial support and livelihood opportunities to the most vulnerable groups of the displaced populations.
To address the root cause of displacement and crisis, IOMs interventions aim at engaging in community resilience and peacebuilding through support to the restoration of normal social, economic, and political life by contributing to healthy, peaceful societies. Key programmatic interventions include the following elements:
- Supporting stronger, more accountable relationships between communities and authorities;
- Supporting civil society as facilitators and interlocutors in this relationship;
- Providing livelihoods support that helps to provide durable and socially constructive economic options.
Target beneficiaries are internally displaced populations in resettlement sites, areas at risks and host communities affected by crisis. This includes contingency planning measures for potential newly affected populations in case of a sudden event in 2020. Out of the 1.6 million people estimated at risk of natural disasters by the Government, the humanitarian community targets to ensure core preparedness and response mechanisms to support a minimum of 20% of potentially affected people in the Government-led contingency plan, or 300,000 people.
Out of the 300,000 people at risk, IOM will aim to ensure preparedness and response for 20,000 families (100,000 people) with emergency relief stockpiling as part of the common pipeline mechanisms. In line with the country's contingency plan, and to ensure minimum preparedness and response measures in-country, IOM will aim to preposition emergency relief kits for these 20,000 families in its warehouses in two critical locations (Cabo Delgado and Sofala Provinces).
The items to be prepositioned will be in line with the National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) standard guidelines, including 2 tarps (4m x 6m), a toolkit, a solar lamp, soap and a bucket in two locations due to their vulnerability and high risk of displacement as a result of natural disasters and insecurity. In order to meet quality standards, tarps are procured internationally while most of the other non-food items are procured locally.
The prepositioned items will enable the rapid response to sudden-onset emergencies in 2020, to assist affected populations uprooted by natural disasters or by insecurity, including in host communities and in hotspot areas of displacement. Target response group for preparedness and response activities is taking into consideration people at risk of secondary displacement.
IOM will also conduct capacity building of INGC warehouse staff which will focus on warehouse management, procurement, fleet management, distributions, environmental sustainability, tracking and replenishment of stocks. Identification of response areas and modalities for rapid response will be guided by rapid assessments through the DTM and partners' assessments as part of the IOM humanitarian response component.
In addition to being systematically deployed in medium to large-scale humanitarian response operations, DTM has also proven to be highly effective as a preparedness tool, as well as in support of the recovery and transition phase of the response. Integrating DTM into capacity building activities, mapping of potential evacuation and displacement sites, and setting up the DTM to be ready before an event occurs are some examples of how the DTM can be employed as an effective preparedness measure.
Through the implementation of DTM tools and methodologies and as a preparedness exercise, IOM will continue to assess and identify flood risk areas, map potential evacuation sites and routes, access to services and physical access constraints across the North and Central Regions. In close collaboration with INGC and jointly with its CCCM preparedness component, this exercise will inform disaster preparedness and risk management planning and contribute to the effective support of the population living in affected communities and resettlement sites.
In continuation of the critical activities undertaken in 2019, IOM intends to provide technical support to the INGC at the national level as well as at provincial levels in Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Sofala, Tete, Zambeszia and Manica provinces to strengthen preparedness and response measures articulated around critical displacement risks.
Key programmatic interventions include:
- Capacity-building: IOM capacity building programme aims to contribute to subnational Government actors' capacity to prepare and respond to emerging disaster scenarios resulting in the displacement of populations, in particular floods and cyclones. IOM, together with other stakeholders, will conduct national and district level consultations on the drivers of disaster-induced risk of displacement, and assess district-level systems and plans, highlighting gaps and trickling down the approach to communities identified as at risk of displacement in case of disaster. This will be done using the Sendai framework and the Government of Mozambique’s policies and frameworks on DRR, as well as its existing capacity-building model implemented in Mozambique. Following a structured curriculum, disaster risk management committees will be trained at the community, district and provincial levels.
- Community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR): IOM intends to strengthen the functions and capacities of the local committees for disaster risk reduction and management in the accommodation and resettlement sites and affected communities by natural disasters, as well as supporting the disaster risk management structures at the national, provincial and district levels. This also includes: (i) capacity-building of disaster risk management committees; (ii) basic community-based disaster mitigation measures in priority locations; (iii) multi-hazard identification and mapping of risks; and (v) revision of disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) plans and contingency planning, including simulation exercises, when/as required.
- Contingency planning: IOM will support the government in updating district level contingency plans using the lens of displacement management. The plans will include the location of hazardous areas identified by the communities, the resources needed, the DRRM simulation and pre-emptive evacuation plans.
These activities will be implemented in close coordination with INGC and local and district authorities as well as other partners implementing DRM activities.
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.