Libya Crisis Response Plan 2024

Last updated: February 14 2024
Funding required
People Targeted

IOM Vision

IOM’s strategic vision for Libya is to work towards ensuring that migrants, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and other mobile populations, including those affected by conflict and disasters related to natural hazards in Libya, peacefully coexist with local communities in an environment where human rights, dignity and well-being are respected and promoted by a migration governance system that fosters resilience and sustainable development. IOM plans to continue delivering life-saving assistance and improving the resilience of migrant populations and local communities, engaging in targeted interventions to support Libya’s IDPs to access durable solutions, and contributing to the establishment of a comprehensive, evidence-based, and people-centred migration governance system that envisages longer-term approaches to managing migration in Libya.

Key Operating Modalities
Participation and empowerment Conflict sensitivity Integrated Programming Collaboration and partnership Localization Cash-based interventions
Cross-cutting priorities
Data and evidence Protection Mainstreaming Gender Equality Prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse Disaster Risk Climate Change Law and policy

Objective 1 - Saving lives and protecting people on the move
Saving lives and protecting people on the move

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM Libya will support the following groups through multisectoral humanitarian assistance and emergency preparedness interventions:

  • Migrants in urban settings as well as at disembarkation points (DPs) and in detention centres following their return to Libyan shores or after being rescued in the desert.
  • IDPs who remain in displacement, including IDPs prevented from returning or unwilling to return, IDPs at high risk of protracted displacement, unsuccessful IDPs in or at risk of secondary displacement, and IDPs who have returned, but are facing severe living conditions.
  • Vulnerable host communities in areas of displacement and communities of return where services are inadequate or overstretched.  

IOM Libya will also provide capacity-building support for NGOs, local and national authorities, for instance on screening campaigns and response including vaccinations and support for humanitarian operations, as well as consular entities for online consular assistance among others.   

IOM programmes, as well as humanitarian, development and peacebuilding actors in Libya, will benefit from an enhanced evidence base for their response. Indirect targets will be the individuals IOM supports through activities and programmes that are better tailored to the needs of affected populations. As part of this initiative, IOM will build the capacity of, and strengthen technical collaboration with, government stakeholders on displacement data collection and analysis, including by engaging with the Bureau of Statistics and Census, the General Information Authority, the Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Local Governance to ensure a cross-government synergized approach to data-related initiatives.

In the absence of reliable national data on crises and internal displacement, international partners have been using the information provided by IOM through its DTM activities. Moreover, Storm Daniel has proven the reliability of IOM’s data as a way to monitor the scale of displacement and to identify affected populations and their immediate needs. The scale of devastation caused by Storm Daniel in September 2023 has unveiled the country’s lack of preparedness for climate change-induced disasters. IOM will support national entities and municipalities in enhancing their capacity to prevent, prepare for and manage crises, pandemics and hazards; plan emergency response in such events; and support communities at risk of displacement due to disasters, insecurity, or diseases of public health concern. 

Basic needs, including food and multi-purpose cash assistance

IOM’s Migrant Resource and Response Mechanism (MRRM) programme brings together under one mechanism a wide range of services and needs-based assistance for vulnerable migrants living in urban settings, especially in hard-to-reach locations where they have less access to services. In 2024 IOM will;

  • Conduct regular mobile outreach to migrant communities along the migratory routes in Libya to identify needs. 
  • Provide non-food items, hygiene kits and emergency food assistance, as well as medical services and mental health and psychosocial support sessions.
  • Refer migrants to specialized protection services and to IOM’s Voluntary Humanitarian Return (VHR) programme which offers migrants the opportunity to return to their country of origin, following a rights-based approach;
  • Conduct individual and group outreach sessions on the dangers and risks of irregular migration, as well as provide information on alternatives, disease control and prevention, and other available humanitarian services in Libya and their countries of origin.
  • Conduct Training and capacity building on Migration Management for government officials and civil society representatives to strengthen their capacity on migration management and governance, which shall lead to facilitated access to basic services by the migrants.

IOM’s Search and Rescue (SAR) initiative consists of a tailored mechanism to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants and support authorities to provide protection- oriented and human rights-based assistance to migrants upon rescue/interception at sea and disembarkation on the Libyan shores and to those rescued in the desert as well as those impacted by natural disasters. To this end, IOM will:

  • Provide life-saving equipment (life jackets, emergency blankets, first aid kits, buoys, body bags, operation suits, gloves and masks);
  • Enhance the infrastructure of reception areas at disembarkation points through topics such as migration management, human rights, language training, information technology and data protection, and first aid. 
  • Equip SAR entities with life-saving search and rescue equipment, incl. Radio communication equipment, tents, mobile generators, body bags, specialized search and recovery equipment.

Recognizing that cash transfers are a crucial component of the humanitarian response, aiming to provide direct financial support to those most affected by the disasters, IOM's multi-purpose cash assistance will:

  • Help families to access essential goods and services, reduce vulnerabilities, and promote resilience in the face of adversity. Moreover, cash-based interventions promote independence and enable crisis-affected populations to take charge of their recovery. The Cash Market Working Group estimates that over 250,000 individuals need multipurpose cash assistance on top of other relief services including Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), health and protection.
  • IOM will provide cash assistance to the main IDP destination areas such as the eastern region of Libya, Misrata and Tripoli in collaboration with Financial Service Providers. Selection of locations will be informed by the evolvement of the displacement and relying on official sources (e.g. DTM report, government data).

Following the onset of armed clashes in Sudan in mid-April 2023, IOM will continue to support with direct assistance measures related to cross-border movements as required.

Funding required
Plan types

Direct health support

IOM’s humanitarian health interventions aim to increase access to primary health care services by promoting migrant-inclusive health systems and advocating for rights to health, to ensure that no one is left behind. To this end, IOM will:

  • Provide primary health care services in detention centres, disembarkation points and urban settings as well as referrals to specialized health care in hospitals or private clinics.
  • Support the Ministry of Health (MOH) to establish a disease surveillance mechanism at detention centers, selected migrant dense locations, and flood-affected communities to monitor diseases under surveillance for early detection, response and control.   
  • Support the MOH and local authorities to establish a surveillance network for conducting public health surveillance and risk assessment to control and prevent disease breakout. 
    • IOM will mobilize its surveillance team and provide support in the detection and response to any outbreaks;
    • provide capacity development training/refresher courses for partners and rapid response teams of surveillance administration, and
    • conduct health education sessions for disease prevention  and sensitizing the displaced population to seek medical care for early detection.
  • Conduct pre-departure medical screenings and fitness-to-travel (FTT) screenings for migrants who voluntarily choose to return to their country of origin through IOM's VHR programme.
  • Provide mobile outreach services at multiple locations across Libya and expand medical outreach teams, especially in underserved areas.
  • Following the onset of armed clashes in Sudan in mid-April, continue to stand ready to support with health assistance measures related to cross-border movements.
  • Conduct needs assessment of public health facilities and communities around the most flood-affected municipalities to identify the health needs and prepare a plan of action to improve the functionality status of the public health facilities and ensure provision of uninterrupted essential healthcare services.
  • Provide essential primary healthcare services to IDPs, displaced populations, flood-affected populations and migrants by mobilizing multidisciplinary medical mobile teams to provide treatment, care and referral as necessary. 
  • Establish a referral mechanism for timely medical management for lifesaving, disability prevention and cases posing public health risk to prequalified and specialized health facilities.
  • Support in the rehabilitation of selected flood-affected public health facilities identified following the need assessment and strengthen its capacity to deliver quality healthcare services to the patients visiting from the flood-affected locations.
  • Fill the critical human resources for health (HRH) gaps, within the public health institutions including specialized and general practitioners, procurement and distribution of medicines, medical supplies and equipment, and refurbishment of health facility infrastructure.
Funding required
Plan types

Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian response

MHPSS efforts aim to empower communities and increase resilience, reduce suffering and promote psychosocial well-being, improve mental health, treat or prevent mental disorders, and enhance accessibility to MHPSS services to affected populations, migrants and Libyans alike. To this end, IOM will:

  • Implement direct and remote MHPSS services based on a rapid psychosocial needs assessment through IOM psychosocial mobile teams (PMTs) to migrants and crisis-affected populations in Libya. 
  • Facilitate psychosocial awareness-raising sessions, basic counselling, support groups, art- based psychosocial activities, recreational activities, psychosocial assessments, psychoeducation and remote counselling through a helpline. MHPSS services will be provided in urban locations, migrants’ schools, disembarkation points following search and rescue operations, IDP shelters and detention centres.
  • Organize MHPSS capacity-building activities targeting frontline actors, health staff and government officials (training on MHPSS in emergency and displacement, MHPSS response during crisis, psychological first aid (PFA) and supportive communication). 
  • Integrate MHPSS into peacebuilding, social cohesion, and access to livelihoods to enhance psychological well-being and readiness to ensure that participants receive the support they need through focus group discussions (FGDs), peer-to-peer support, and needs assessments.
  • Provide comprehensive MHPSS to victims of trafficking (VoTs) and people suffering from psychological distress and mental health conditions, due to their unique vulnerabilities experienced during displacement, migration, and disasters.
  • Following the onset of armed clashes in Sudan in mid-April 2023, continue to stand ready to support with MHPSS assistance related to cross-border movements.
  • Organize coordination meetings to ensure an alignment of MHPSS services to the affected population. IOM co-chairs the MHPSS Technical Working Group (TWG) for Libya with the International Medical Corps and the Ministry of Health. The MHPSS TWG provides technical guidance and capacity-building, advocates for the increased protection and assistance of vulnerable groups, focusing indiscriminately on all persons in need, and strengthens communication, coordination and collaboration among all MHPSS partners and stakeholders.
Funding required
Plan types

Site management

IOM coordinates the site management sector under the UN Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM) established in Libya to respond to emergencies. The RRM was activated in September 2023 to ensure coordinated efforts in responding to the needs of the population affected by floods. IOM has been providing technical guidance, coordination and liaison with the government, UN partners and other national and international partners. In this regard, IOM will: 

  • Continue to coordinate Site Management Technical Working Group (SMTWG).
  • Provide site management support including in all temporary displacement site types, particularly collective centres, communal buildings, spontaneous settlements, transit centres, and evacuation centres. IOM will apply an area-based approach, which facilitates both quick relief and fosters sustainable recovery through an understanding and analysis of the specific needs and capacities of different areas and communities to guide sectoral responses. 
  • Set up community management and information centres or mobile site management teams alongside relevant partners, through which affected communities can be informed about available services, request needed support, volunteer to support the response through community committees if established, and/or receive counselling (MHPSS or legal counsel). IOM will work closely with local authorities, grassroots actors and civil society to ensure accountability and promote a community-centred approach. 
  • Map partners, services, and needs and provide access to complaint and feedback mechanisms and a centralized referrals system. 
Funding required
Plan types

Movement assistance

Voluntary humanitarian return (VHR) supports stranded migrants to voluntarily return to their countries of origin and provides suitable socio-economic reintegration, abiding by the institutional return policies in line with IOM’s Policy on the Full Spectrum of Return, Readmission and Reintegration. Assistance under the VHR programme is designed to provide tailored support to vulnerable migrants. To this end, IOM will:

  • Conduct field visits and outreach sessions in detention centres and urban areas to inform migrants of IOM’s voluntary humanitarian return assistance programme as well as identify and register those expressing interest in returning to their countries of origin.
  • Organize outreach seminars and training for migrant community leaders and other relevant stakeholders to enhance two-way communication and direct access to the programme.
  • Facilitate exit visa requests on behalf of migrants once their travel documents have been received from their embassy.
  • Organize migrants’ voluntary humanitarian return to their countries of origin in coordination with the respective missions through charter or commercial flights, provide medical escorts, and additional specialized escorts to unaccompanied and separated children, assist with obtaining travel documents, and conduct pre-departure medical health assessments, individual counselling and vulnerability screening. Assign specialized protection workers as required, and follow child protection procedures, including Best Interest Determination  (BID), as necessary and conduct case-by-case referrals to other specialized services within the UN system and other international organizations   
  • Distribution of non-food items such as clothing and footwear to migrants in detention to ensure the most dignified and comfortable return conditions possible.
  • Provide emergency humanitarian assistance prior to departure and ensure coordination with IOM-receiving missions to provide a continuum of care.

In collaboration with IOM Offices in countries of origin, IOM Libya promotes support for sustainable reintegration, leveraging funding under other initiatives wherever possible.

Funding required
Plan types


Protection of the most vulnerable migrants is crucial in a context such as Libya. IOM works to ensure that migrants requiring specialized assistance are identified and appropriately supported with protection interventions to alleviate their suffering and to maintain human dignity. To this end, IOM will:

  • Undertake rapid and in-depth vulnerability assessments conducted by protection case workers utilizing IOM Assistance to Vulnerable Migrants (AVM) standardized tools to ensure informed case management or referrals to services to IOM or other protection actors (NGOs, INGOs etc). 
  • Evaluate barriers and facilitate access to services and strengthen the assistance to vulnerable migrants through improved protection monitoring, specialized outreach, referrals, and case management.
  • Build the capacity of Libyan authorities (through trainings and development of guidance documents), local and international non-governmental organizations, IOM staff and other partners on the protection of migrants, including case management and referrals of vulnerable migrants such as VoTs, survivors of gender-based violence (GBV), persons with disabilities, unaccompanied and separated children (UASCs), women and girls, and the elderly.
  • Continue to provide advocacy to end arbitrary detention and work towards ending immigration detention, especially for children, and advocate for alternatives to detention for particularly vulnerable migrants, including women and children.
  • Promote the integrated delivery of protection services to migrants through mainstreaming of protection and accountability to affected populations within IOM humanitarian interventions. IOM will also ensure that all staff are trained in the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA) and on how to respond to a disclosure of GBV and other protection concerns in a safe manner.
  • Provide specialized assistance to unaccompanied and separated children, including best interest assessments and determination to provide safe long-term solutions assistance.
  • Provide technical support and assistance to the government to promote the establishment of legal and policy frameworks to counter trafficking in persons.
  • Conduct research, data collection, and analysis on trafficking in persons and/or protection concerns in Libya.
  • Raise awareness of migrants and host families on available services as well as access to complaint and feedback mechanisms (CFM), and conduct focus group discussions with community members to ensure programming decisions consider the voices of all including women and girls, children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly.
  • Integrate community-based protection programming to improve access to communities, promote community ownership and strengthen existing capacities within vulnerable groups.
  • In line with its protection mainstreaming guidance, Defining an Institutional Approach to Protection (DIAP), and IOM’s Institutional Framework for Addressing GBV in Crises (GBViC Framework), integrate measures to ensure that the principles of Do No Harm, safety, equal access and non-discrimination guide any activity and are adhered to throughout all interventions, and that GBV risk mitigation initiatives are included in all sectors of the response.
  • Following the onset of armed clashes in Sudan in mid-April 2023, continue to stand ready to support with protection measures related to cross-border movements.   
  • In coordination with humanitarian partners, conduct protection assessments to better understand the contextualized risks faced by flood-affected populations, which will be used to tailor the protection response. 
  • Provide general protection and child protection case management through direct assistance and referral to specialized services, including family tracing, reunification, and other child protection services
Funding required
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies

IOM will provide urgently needed WASH assistance to populations affected by violence, conflict and disaster displacement alongside other vulnerable populations in Libya including detained or stranded migrants and refugees in detention centres and urban areas. Interventions will be conducted in a gender-sensitive manner in line with IOM's Gender Policy as well as the AAP Framework and the UN Principles Framework on interventions in detention centres. Specifically, IOM will:

  • Provide essential WASH items, and hygiene kits inclusive of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) items to Libyans who have been affected by clashes and displacement and to non-Libyans, including migrants and refugees in detention centres.
  • Organize hygiene promotion sessions on improved hygiene practices, inclusive of awareness-raising activities. 
  • Facilitate basic WASH rehabilitation to ensure life-saving assistance can be provided, such as access to drinking water, sanitation, washing areas and ventilation at the detention centres and in flood-affected areas. 
  • Drill new water wells, rehabilitate existing wells, and provide water pumps and generators.  
  • Conduct fumigations, disinfections and thorough cleaning interventions in detention centres, to prevent and mitigate the outbreak of contagious diseases.
  • Provide emergency water supply to cover the temporary interruption of WASH services due to the floods. 
  • Conduct needs assessments in targeted locations to identify WASH infrastructure gaps and risks, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of communities. 
Funding required
Plan types

Shelter and settlements

IOM will provide life-saving core relief items to affected populations with a particular focus on the most vulnerable individuals and families in the aftermath of disasters and displacements (particularly to respond to Storm Daniel, September 2023) as well as to vulnerable migrants in detention centres and urban settings. IOM will:

  • Consult community representatives and local partners to identify the critical needs of vulnerable groups in addition to carrying out targeted needs assessments to verify priorities.
  • Distribute NFIs including shelter materials and comprehensive packages of essential household items, and dignity kits to IDPs, migrants in need, and flood affected populations.
  • Provide shelter solutions to flood-affected populations with seriously damaged or destroyed homes who have been forced to relocate, through various mechanisms, such as transitional shelters or rental assistance.    
  • Support returnees and migrants with the repair and rehabilitation of damaged houses through the provision of in-kind assistance; female- children- and elderly-headed households will be prioritized in the response to ensure increased protection.
  • Ensure safe and confidential complaints and feedback mechanisms are in place to respond to any reported incidents of intimidation, violence and sexual exploitation.
  • Conduct post-distribution monitoring to gauge beneficiary satisfaction, appropriateness and usefulness of supplies provided.
  • Coordinate with relevant IOM technical teams and partners to ensure that crisis-affected households live in dignity and in environmentally friendly, secure settlements that facilitate access to community/public services and facilities, infrastructure, and access to economic opportunities.  
  • In collaboration with multiple stakeholders, execute an in-depth assessment of damages and needs within the affected regions. This comprehensive analysis will identify prevalent vulnerabilities, quantify damages, and determine the pressing shelter and service necessities. This data will be pivotal in structuring methodical and impactful interventions for the communities in distress.
Funding required
Plan types

Humanitarian border management and services for citizens abroad

Under humanitarian border management (HBM), IOM will carry out the following activities:

  • Strengthen national capacities in performing search and rescue operations at sea and in the desert, or in the aftermath of natural hazards as well as providing emergency first aid, safe recovery, and post-rescue humanitarian assistance in line with international human rights standards and best practices.
  • At the request of the government, conduct health and HBM assessments at border crossing points to determine preparedness and readiness to handle high-volume movements and/or migrant populations with varied or complex immigration statuses.
  • Support government counterparts and border agencies in developing training programmes on international human rights, standards and protection, data management, and best practices in alternatives to detention (ATDs).
  • Support authorities in developing protection-oriented border management training of trainers (ToT) modules to be used in their in-house training programs, enhancing the sustainability of future actions.
  • Work with immigration authorities to explore options and criteria for temporary protection status, reflection periods, temporary or longer-term stay, and/or options for regularization.

Libya’s unstable political and security situation and a general lack of the rule of law in most border areas, particularly those along the southern borders, pose significant threats to migrants entering and transiting the country along the Central Mediterranean migration route. In response, IOM will:

  • Promote regional cooperation by supporting enhanced information-sharing mechanisms with neighbouring countries and beyond.
  • Provide capacity-building to migration authorities on international human rights standards and best practices related to readmission and return of migrants.

Moreover, in order to support migrants’ access to consular services including the facilitation of issuance of travel documents and other official documentation, and provision of enhanced consular assistance for those wishing to voluntarily return to their countries of origin, IOM plans to:

  • Enhance the capacity of consular officials in providing timely and effectively consular services to their nationals including to those in detention centres, urban locations, or virtually through online consular sessions.
  • Provide support to the delivery of consular services by governments without diplomatic missions in Libya by addressing identified bottlenecks to the issuance of travel documents and tailored support to their nationals in support of humanitarian voluntary return operations.
  • Provide support to migrants on issuance and verification of documentation.
Funding required
Plan types

Displacement tracking

Through DTM, IOM has been providing data for action to all humanitarian, development and peace actors to ensure a common operating picture concerning the movement of IDPs, returnees and migrants in Libya since 2016. The data allows crisis response actors to provide timely assistance to those in need and guides strategic planning and response. IOM works in coordination with Libyan counterparts including the Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Displacement. To this end, IOM plans to conduct:   

  • Flow Monitoring: Collect information on the volume of migrants and their basic characteristics across key transit points during observation hours to understand migration flows.
  • Migrant Surveys: Conduct in-person/face-to-face interviews with migrants to better understand their migration aspirations, intentions, histories, humanitarian needs and vulnerabilities to inform humanitarian action and migration management programming.
  • Mobility Tracking: Conduct mobility tracking across 100 municipalities of Libya to identify the current location and priority needs of vulnerable groups, particularly migrants and IDPs to inform humanitarian interventions.  
  • Detention Centre Profiling: Provide snapshots of detention centres under the management of Libya’s DCIM.
  • Emergency Event Tracking: Conduct rapid displacement assessments to provide baseline information within 72 hours of an incident.
  • Thematic assessments and multi-sectoral needs assessments focusing on priority needs among migrants and IDPs.
  • Intention surveys and returnee assessments to determine pathways to durable solutions for displaced populations.
  • Solutions and Mobility Index (SMI) implementation to generate evidence on access to durable solutions, quality of returns and drivers of fragility at the community level, as well as to cover aspects of mobility and migration related to climate change and disaster-related drivers.
  • Activities to build the information management capacity of Libyan line ministries.
  • In-depth thematic assessments and research studies on various topics of interest such as remittances, labour migration, migration and climate change and circular migration, amongst other thematic areas.
  • Activities supporting and strengthening IOM Libya's AAP by leveraging information exchange with affected communities and people.
Funding required
Plan types

Emergency preparedness

In Libya, the trend of IDP returns to their places of origin and the resulting decrease in the number of people displaced observed since the mid-2020 ceasefire continues. However, Storm Daniel, the unstable political and security situation and the volume of migrants present and transiting through the country, demonstrated the need to invest in knowledge and capacities to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent, or current disasters. IOM will: 

  • Pre-position NFI and food kits.
  • Monitor migration flows and migrants’/IDPs’ needs.
  • Train and equip local responders, including performing Search And Rescue in Desert (SARD) operations along the vast desert areas with neighbouring countries.
  • Based on the adaptation and disaster risk reduction analysis, and, in coordination with the relevant stakeholders, develop emergency contingency plans, and stockpile equipment and supplies.
Funding required
Plan types
Distribution of essential non-food items to the affected population © Moaiad Tariq 2023
Distribution of essential non-food items to the affected population © Moaiad Tariq 2023

Objective 2 - Driving solutions to displacement
Driving solutions to displacement

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

Several waves of conflicts since 2011 have compounded the political, social and economic challenges facing local communities. The displacement of Libyans and the presence of migrants have exacerbated competition over resources and the deterioration of local economies has further heightened community-level discord. Pre-existing tensions between people divided by tribe, race and ethnicity have become increasingly challenging, making the tasks of local governance and fair allocation of public government resources ever more difficult. Additionally, the scale of devastation caused by Storm Daniel in September 2023 has unveiled the country’s lack of preparedness for climate change-induced disasters. 

IOM Libya’s programmes will benefit communities where there is risk for conflict, including inter-tribal conflicts between local communities, or between migrant populations and host communities, as well as internally displaced populations in resettlement and relocation sites, and host communities affected by crises, including the communities along the migratory routes. Interventions will strongly involve community engagement to ensure the most vulnerable population groups such as persons with disabilities, older persons, children and women are reached and included in the response. This approach will encompass activities aimed at preventing and responding to the protection risks for children, women and other groups, which will involve an assessment of potential child protection, GBV, and other protection risks, as well as an analysis of what preventive measures can be developed to mitigate them in conjunction with other sectors. 

IOM supports a whole of community approach to strengthen social cohesion, community resilience and reduce points of tension. IOM Libya will also work closely with CSOs, NGOs, local and national authorities, and training centres, among others, supporting national entities and municipalities in enhancing their capacity to prevent, prepare for and manage crises, pandemics and hazards; plan emergency response in such events; and support communities at risk of displacement due to disasters, insecurity, or diseases of public health concern. 

Community stabilization

Since the 2011 revolution, Libya has been faced with a series of insecurities and tensions within communities as a result of the political crisis, and its aftermath on social and economic welfare. Weak institutions, poor service delivery, and limited access to livelihood opportunities, present compounding factors for raising of tensions among different groups. To minimize the risks, IOM Libya has been implementing community stabilization programming since 2016 to assist in re-establishing stability and restoring trust among community members, the local authorities, and mobile populations, laying the foundation for durable solutions. Programmatic interventions are guided by conflict sensitivity assessments in conflict-affected locations. To this end, IOM will:

  • Improve service delivery to strengthen the relationship between the government and communities by supporting the restoration of basic services through consultative community processes, which prioritize the repair and rehabilitation of critical infrastructure such as schools, clinics, water wells, and playgrounds, as well as the provision of equipment to improve the quality of services. 
  • Promote social cohesion, dialogue and community engagement targeting vulnerable groups such as women, migrants and IDPs, and persons with disabilities through community-based initiatives.
  • Strengthen the capacities of local actors such as associations and local CSOs to respond to local challenges and contribute to stabilization. 
  • Advance the durable solutions framework through support to local and national stakeholders on displacement and data analysis and social protection schemes. 
Funding required
Plan types

Peacebuilding and peace preservation

IOM will lay the foundation for prevention of violent extremism (PVE) and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) intervention with a focus on youth initiatives. The DDR has been designed to support national governments to navigate the complexities associated with violent extremism as a prevention and resolution of the drivers of crisis-induced displacement, and involuntary migration.

  • In the Fezzan region, IOM will offer programming with a focus on youth initiatives and the prevention of radicalization, providing concrete alternatives to youth through a combined approach of activities that are inclusive of families, schools, community institutions and the government. 
Funding required
Plan types

Health system strengthening

IOM supports strengthening the Libyan health system through targeted and need-based assistance including required equipment, medicines and supplies to selected health facilities and building the capacity of public health professionals, which is vital to address the critical challenges in the national health system that are both structural and systemic. To this end, IOM will:

  • Improve access to life-saving and essential primary health care services through the provision of medical equipment and supplies to targeted primary and secondary health facilities that provide services to vulnerable migrants, IDPs, returnees and host communities, including filling critical gaps in selected health facilities.
  • Strengthen the health information system by building the capacity of the health information centre and civil registry on data analysis, and management.
  • Organize capacity-building activities for healthcare workers on the complete package of primary health care, including case management of communicable diseases and specialized emergency medical services through the deployment of emergency medical teams.
  • Facilitate coordination of partners' activities (e.g. capacity-building, service provision, and referral mechanisms) to avoid duplication and promote complementarity and synergies, as co-chair of the Migration Health Sub-Working Group (MH-SWG), in collaboration with the MOH.

The unsafe and complex journeys undertaken by migrants reaching Libya and beyond expose them, as well as host communities, to multiple health risks and vulnerabilities, which are augmented when migrants are detained, while intercepted/rescued at sea, or captured from communities. To enhance health preparedness and infection prevention, IOM will:

  • Continue to contribute to the Government of Libya and national health partners’ preparedness and response efforts for public health diseases of international concern (PHEIC), including at points of entry (POEs), to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The contribution will include support to conduct assessments, contingency planning, and the implementation of standard operating procedures for POEs to continue monitoring disease transmission and prevent possible pandemics.   
  • Continue to support risk communication and community engagement targeting emerging/re-emerging communicable diseases of outbreak potential, including the priority diseases from the NCDC for surveillance/reporting.
  • Strengthen disease surveillance and event-based surveillance to improve early detection, including contact tracing mechanism for migrants, returnees, IDPs and the host population.
  • Continue to support the District Health Information System (DHIS 2) and extend support to other primary health care centres (PHCs) and hospitals.
  • Continue to support the strengthening of the public health system along the migratory routes to address the unmet health needs for the vulnerable, hard to reach population and enhance the capacity on disease surveillance and response.
  • Strengthen the capacity of selected public hospitals for emergency health services to the migrants rescued after search and rescue operations at the border.
  • Continue health promotion through social mobilization and behaviour change activities focused on disease prevention and control.
Funding required
Plan types

Livelihoods and economic recovery

Livelihood support aims at revitalizing the economy at the community level by providing financial, and technical support to individuals to start, re-open, and expand businesses and other income-generating activities, thus revitalizing the economy, creating new employment opportunities, and supporting the recovery and stability of the target areas. Therefore, livelihood support will be provided to qualified or promising members of the community within vulnerable groups, including female-headed households, to maximize the likelihood of local businesses' success. To do so, IOM partners with relevant line ministries such as the Ministry of Labour and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Economy, and Ministry of Local Governance, as well as Libyan CSOs and the private sector. IOM will continue to: 

  • Enhance economic recovery via grassroots livelihood opportunities for IDPs, returnees, migrants and host communities through the delivery of coaching sessions and in-kind grants to support micro-entrepreneurs in setting up or expanding small businesses and increase employability. 
  • Provide skills enhancement services and livelihood grants for the private sector (small-medium enterprises development fund) to support socioeconomic recovery and access to livelihood opportunities.
  • Strengthen the labour market administration system by operationalizing the labour market information system to provide real data on supply and demand gaps in the Libyan labour market. 
  • Provide skill enhancement services for better livelihood-generating activities as well as strengthening an inclusive labour force either by working directly with communities or through the expansion of IOM's Youth Employment One Stop Shop (YESS) programme in different cities of Libya, especially in locations that are affected by Storm Daniel. 
  • Reduce skills mismatch to improve livelihoods by working with local CSO platforms, business incubators, and training centres or through technical and vocational education and training (TVET) reform and the development of TVET curricula that are industry-tailored, gender and environment-focused, and relevant to the local labour market. 
  • Implementing vocational, entrepreneurial, business and marketing skills development initiatives for youth, in cooperation with local councils and municipalities. 
  • Expand the work with the private sector and youth on apprenticeships and job placement opportunities.  
  • Support in enhancing the MoL’s capacity with its e-recruitment platform and its functionalities.
  • Supporting with the inclusion of IDPs, non-Libyans, and Libyan diaspora in the social protection policy and its mechanisms.
Funding required
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations

With regard to the provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations, IOM Libya will provide the following activities:

  • Improve the situation of WASH facilities in schools by constructing new sanitary blocks or rehabilitating existing ones;
  • Enhance the operational capabilities of the General Wastewater Company, a government entity, by supplying them with submersible wastewater pumps and equipment. This initiative aims to elevate their service quality to benefit all communities.
  • Organize awareness events on water conservation, and promote behaviors that allow safe water supply especially leveraging on international days such as World Water Day, Global Handwashing Day, and World Toilet Day. 
  • Conduct an evaluation to pinpoint the pressing requirements of the affected population.
  • Enhance assistance by distributing hygiene kits to affected families and promote better hygiene practices through awareness campaigns.
  • Collaborate with WASH partners to conduct a comprehensive assessment, mapping water sources, ensuring water quality, and optimizing water distribution in the impacted areas.
  • Coordinate with the government, and relevant stakeholders to understand water resource requirements and support longer-term planning for integrated water resource management. 
Funding required
Plan types

Mental health and psychosocial support in transition and recovery

​​​​​​​In Libya, MHPSS needs are chronically neglected due to longstanding challenges that include the shortage of qualified specialists, weak community-based and specialized services, lack of mental health facilities and psychosocial support centres, lack of support to existing facilities, and social stigma towards people with mental health disorders. IOM has reactivated the MHPSS Technical Working Group (TWG) in close coordination with the Ministry of Health since August 2020, co-chaired the MHPSS TWG from August 2020 until December 2022, and plans to continue supporting the national MHPSS coordination efforts under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Among the key roles of MHPSS is to restore the social fabric of the communities to enable psychosocial well-being, build resilience and facilitate the socioeconomic recovery of the crisis-affected population, allowing communities to harness their strengths and capacities to actively participate and engage in activities that contribute to transition and sustainable recovery. To do so, IOM will

  • Integrate MHPSS into peacebuilding, social cohesion, and access to livelihoods to enhance the psychological well-being and readiness of the affected population to participate in the transition and recovery process and receive needed support.
  • Conduct focus group discussions (FGDs), peer-to-peer support, and needs assessments to support the transition and recovery of the affected communities. 
  • Build the capacity of Libyan practitioners and MHPSS actors on MHPSS interventions in migration, emergency, displacement and pandemic settings, as well as on the provision of basic and advanced counselling skills, the use of psychological first aid (PFA) and IASC MHPSS resources for pandemic response.
  • Continue to support and enhance national coordination mechanisms including by supporting national efforts for service mapping, referrals, data collection, joint studies and assessments.
  • Provide technical support and guidance to national counterparts and strengthen referral pathways and advocacy on MHPSS issues.
Funding required
Plan types

Adaptation and disaster risk reduction

IOM Libya's continued work on disaster risk reduction (DRR) will contribute towards the implementation of the Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030. IOM’s DRR programmes will integrate mobility-based strategies in efforts to reduce disaster risk and strengthen resilience. Paying particular attention to at-risk communities, migrants, including returnees, displaced populations, and other vulnerable mobile groups, this programming aims to prevent or reduce displacement through support for prevention and mitigation, risk governance and information. Activities will include:

  • Conduct multi-hazard risk assessments in locations prone to disaster and map potential evacuation sites, access to services and physical access constraints.
  • Invest in data collection to identify risks in all of its dimensions in communities at risk, vulnerability of the communities, and the environment, in close coordination with DTM Programme team. Ensure dissemination of risk assessment findings through awareness-raising activities. 
  • Provide trainings on DRR in line with the Migrants in Countries in Crisis (MICIC) Guidelines and other internationally recognized standards, including on the Guidelines to Protect Migrants in Countries Experiencing Conflict or Natural Disasters to crisis-affected communities as part of site management and evacuation, shelter response and recovery programmes, mainstreaming protection principles, and durable solutions.
  • Conduct capacity-building activities for national, municipal counterparts and other relevant stakeholders on prevention, preparedness and mitigation of disaster-induced displacement.
  • Conduct advocacy work for policies and research related to climate change adaptation (CCA) in Libya.
  • Conduct consultations with communities vulnerable to climate risks to develop community action plans that identify localized climate adaptation strategies and provide technical assistance to implement these plans. 
  • Support the drafting, review and updating of local policies on disaster risk reduction/management and local CCA planning and strengthen the implementation capacity of local actors through the provision of training, equipment and tools
  • Conduct research and actions related to CCA and contribute to the generation of relevant science-based evidence and utilization of local knowledge to inform the government’s policies and programmes, and multi-sectoral programmes (i.e. food security-WASH-climate change, DTM-community stabilization) with other development partners including UN agencies and CSO partners.
  • Support at-risk communities and individuals to mainstream climate-smart, sustainable green livelihood strategies, including through the set-up of community-based climate risk monitoring and early warning systems.
  • Facilitate community-based disaster risk management processes and the development of community-based disaster management plans to enable communities to be better prepared to deal and cope with disasters. Communities will be trained on the development of community action plans to determine community resilience-building needs.
  • To facilitate post-floods recovery and rebuilding of the social structure, IOM will also implement community-based planning (CBP) in areas impacted by the floods and mass displacement. Activities implemented will be organized in two main interconnected pillars: 
    • Community improvement projects (CIPs) aimed at repairing or replacing damaged water infrastructure and restore access to clean water sources and sanitation facilities. Based on consultations and assessments with local stakeholders, CIPs could also undertake the repair and rehabilitation of critical infrastructure as well as the provision of equipment, including schools, healthcare facilities, and public utilities. Resilient design principles will be included in the rehabilitation process to reduce the risk of future damage.   
    • Early recovery initiatives at the community level aimed at enhancing the capacity of affected communities to cope with the crisis and targeting vulnerable groups such as women, migrants, IDPs, and persons with disabilities, with the support to strengthen capacities of local actors such as associations and civil society organizations.
Funding required
Plan types
Operational presence in


International staff and affiliated work force
National staff and affiliated work force
IOM field office

The map used here is for illustration purposes only. Names and boundaries do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.

Figures are as of 31 December 2023. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.