Somalia Crisis Response Plan 2023

Last updated: March 02 2023
Funding required
People in need
People Targeted

IOM Vision

IOM Somalia aims to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity through the delivery of frontline services to crisis-affected populations, while steadily developing models and partnerships for longer-term recovery and migration governance. IOM is strategically well-placed to operationalize the humanitarian-development-peace nexus through its vast portfolio. IOM aims to catalyse programming from multiple units to provide more holistic support to communities in a way that reinforces government legitimacy and enables the government to deliver services.

Save lives and respond to needs through humanitarian assistance and protection

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM Somalia will aim to target IDPs and conflict and climate-affected populations including vulnerable host communities, refugees, returnees, and migrants. IOM will strive to ensure greater attention and support to the needs of the most vulnerable groups such as the newly displaced, child-headed households, elderly, single-headed families, persons with disabilities, GBV survivors, among others.

Furthermore, humanitarian and life-saving forms of assistance will be provided for more than 60,000 vulnerable migrants, returnees, and host communities along the Eastern Route across Somalia. These groups have diverse vulnerabilities and require assistance including livelihood support, primary and secondary medical support, temporary accommodation for returnees/migrants travelling to countries of origin/final destinations, movement assistance, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), and the distribution of NFIs among other primary and secondary assistances as well as lifesaving WASH assistance.

Entities targeted include state ministries, national and international non-governmental organizations (N/INGOs), other UN agencies, and civil society organizations (CSOs).


IOM works directly with marginalized communities in hard-to-reach areas, bolstering governance and justice mechanisms that ensure protection for the most vulnerable. Specifically, in conflict and post-conflict contexts, IOM focuses on survivors and those most vulnerable to gender-based violence.  

In addition, the protracted conflicts and prolonged drought in Somalia have led many people to take extremely risky routes from Somalia across the Gulf of Aden, despite increased insecurity and violence in Yemen following the outbreak of war in March 2015. The number of migrants and refugees arriving in Yemen has steadily increased since 2012. In the period between January and October 2022 alone, nearly 54,000 migrants have departed on the Eastern Route that spans from the Horn of Africa to countries in the Gulf, according to IOM’s DTM.  

Since 2017, IOM and the UNHCR have closely coordinated assistance to allow refugees and migrants to return to Somalia. UNHCR and IOM each bring complementary, unique expertise, with UNHCR leading on beneficiary identification, reception and provision of enhanced packages to returnees, and IOM managing movement operations (managed by IOM Yemen). 

Protection needs in Somalia are significant and complex, and range from MHPSS, to GBV and child protection. Pockets of intercommunal/clan clashes compounded with disease outbreaks, persistent food insecurity, continued displacement of communities and climate shocks have led to critical levels of distress and protection risks.

In Somalia, IOM will: 

  • Provide assistance to vulnerable migrants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with hot meals in close collaboration with the transit centre in Mogadishu during their stay.
  • Assist returnees from KSA, under the Migrant Protection, Return and Reintegration (MPRR) supported programme for returnees from Libya, Sudan, and Egypt with temporary accommodation before reaching final destinations in Somalia through the functioning transit centre in Mogadishu.
  • Distribute NFIs to migrants and returnees along migratory routes in Somalia. These target locations include Mogadishu, Bossaso and Hargeisa. 
  • Ensure migrants are fit to travel forward through the provision of medical services in collaboration with Migration Response Centres (MRCs) in Bossaso and Hargeisa. IOM will provide medical kits for primary health care to vulnerable Ethiopian migrants traveling across Somaliland and Puntland. 
  • Train government officials on the protection, response and assistance of Ethiopian migrants entering Somalia via Somaliland and Puntland borders. These trainings will focus on counter-trafficking bringing together government authorities and service providers including police departments, immigration, MRCs, local governments, women and youth associations, and medical centres. 
  • Organize six crucial awareness-raising events gathering returnees, migrants and host communities, on the risks of irregular migrations and available services in case of issues. These events are expected to take place in Hargeisa, Bossaso and Mogadishu. 
  • Implement four community-based projects (CBR) aiming to bring together returnees to be assisted under MPRR and members from the communities of return in the main areas of return in Somalia. This CBR will be implemented either in Mogadishu, Hargeisa or Bossaso. 
  • Mainstream protection principles across sectors to guarantee meaningful access to assistance for all persons in need, without discrimination. Particular attention will be given to effective participation and empowerment of the community. Adapted Complaint and Feedback Mechanisms (CFM) and other reporting mechanisms related to Prevention against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) and the Child Safeguarding Policy, will be put in place to prevent misconduct and guarantee accountability to the affected population.
  • Promote a community-based approach to the response, support protection mechanisms at sites, and facilitate meaningful access to specialized services for persons, such as older persons, persons with disabilities, vulnerable women, and children. 
  • Contribute to IOM’s mental health and psychosocial interventions in IDP sites and surrounding host communities, and conduct advocacy on the delivery of basic services and security. Enhance access to survivor-centred services by responding to individual needs, preventing, and mitigating GBV risks, and supporting survivors of GBV in the IDP sites and targeted areas in host communities.  
  • Promote a community-based approach to GBV, support community protection mechanisms, and facilitate meaningful access to specialized services for persons, such as older persons, persons with disabilities, vulnerable women and children.  
  • Strengthen the national Protection system together with the Government and local partners, mitigating potential tensions between IDPs and host communities through community cohesion activities, sensitisations and advocacy, and promoting an inclusive, integrated multi-sectoral approach to addressing protection risks and needs. 
Funding required
Plan types

Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian response

When it comes to mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian responses, IOM will:

  • Integrate MHPSS at the facility level and directly in the communities of intervention including the establishment of psychosocial mobile teams (in IDP settlements and non-IDP surrounding host communities).
  • Conduct MHPSS activities including MHPSS needs assessment, training to response and mobile teams and selected key community members on basic MHPSS skills, psychological first aid (PFA), and various psychosocial activities with the objective to improve the local capacity to meet the MHPSS needs of Somalia’s crisis-affected populations by building the capacity and skill set of first responders and community gatekeepers.  
  • Provide focused support (including e.g., individual and group counselling, and peer support groups).
  • Provide referrals to specialized mental health services for people with severe mental health disorders. 
  • Provide psychosocial support at the community and family level, including the provision of socio-relational activities (such as sports and play activities, art-based interventions, or cultural activities and rituals).
Funding required
Plan types

Movement assistance

Supporting migrants to reach their destination is one of IOM Somalia’s initiatives, implemented along with the protection of migrants.

In close collaboration with MRCs in Hargeisa and Bossaso, IOM Somalia will assist Ethiopian migrants with humanitarian voluntary return (VHR) to return to their countries of origin. This assistance will be broken down into movements based on needs, which will be pre-screened with Ethiopian consulates and relevant authorities in Somaliland, Puntland, or any other location.

Funding required
Plan types

Camp coordination and camp management

IOM will continue co-chairing the CCCM Cluster, and implementing CCCM activities in Baidoa, Xudur, Dollow, Luuq, Baardheere, Kismayo, Mogadishu, Belet Weyne, Jalalaqsi, Bulo Burto and Jowhar. Activities include, but are not limited to:

  • Coordinate delivery of services through an analysis of needs and gaps, site monitoring, and facilitation of relevant forums at the site and area levels.
  • Identify and verify newly arrived displaced households and engage them to ensure they have access to essential information on rights and services. 
  • Conduct site verifications on a quarterly basis, map the services available in sites, and monitor service delivery quality twice a year, or ad-hoc.
  • Improve the living conditions of displaced people by supporting community-led site maintenance assessments, committees, and activities to ensure the upkeep and safety of the physical living environment.
  • Conduct regular site safety audits to identify areas of reported risk and implement emergency site improvement projects to minimize protection risks and ensure safety for all population groups.
  • In coordination with the local authorities, protection, and the eviction task force, identify and develop new IDP sites where households can relocate when at risk of being evicted.
  • Strengthen community self-management and access to information for displaced populations by supporting the establishment (where not already in existence) and strengthening of diverse and inclusive governance structures.
  • Provide capacity-building on CCCM and related principles to Camp Management Committees, local authorities, and humanitarian partners.
  • Provide safe and furnished community spaces for Camp Management Committees to host meetings, trainings, events, etc.
  • Lead on facilitating the collective accountability of humanitarian response through the implementation of robust inter-agency Community Feedback Mechanisms.
  • Regularly review and update assessment tools and mechanisms to combat site splitting, bush baris, and to review site definition criteria.
  • Operate timely and responsive feedback and complaint mechanisms - accessible at help desks in community centres through outreach teams or via a toll-free hotline.
Funding required
Plan types

Direct health support

IOM will continue to scale up its health and nutrition services to reach communities affected by the drought in central and southern Somalia. The activities are primarily aimed at managing and treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM), whilst reducing morbidity and mortality and improving health-seeking behaviours to prevent disease outbreaks. IOM will provide direct health support to populations in dire need of direct healthcare provision, with a focus on hard-to-reach areas, through the use of mobile teams.

IOM will support the operation of seven static healthcare facilities with integrated community outreach and 17 mobile teams, many of which are in hard-to-reach, remote, or conflict-affected areas with limited or no health actors, because the population lacks access to basic life-saving health and curative and preventative nutrition services. Additionally, IOM will continue to support three MRCs and one transit centre. Health and nutrition services will be provided in line with the national Essential Package of Health Services (EPHS) framework for service delivery. Activities include: 

  • Provide lifesaving vaccination to hard-to-reach children to increase immunization coverage among vulnerable populations and help mitigate communicable disease outbreaks. 
  • Facilitate the deployment of rapid response teams at key points of entry to enhance epidemiological surveillance through screening and referrals in the event of a public health emergency. 
  • Support fixed health facilities to have and provide Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BeMONC), especially in locations lacking maternity and delivery services.
  • Provide life-saving assistance in hard-to-reach areas through the support of mobile teams.
  • Support health services in the MRCs and transit centre with equipment and capacity building when necessary.
  • Provide health education at the health facilities and during mobile and outreach sessions.

With a focus on nutrition, IOM will:

  • Integrate nutrition activities in seven static facilities and 17 mobile teams across Somalia.
  • Ensure mothers and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) key influencers are given the necessary information on IYCF in emergencies (IYCF-E). 
  • Provide supplementation vitamin A to children under-five years old. 
  • Screen pregnant and lactating women (PLW) and refer them to the nearest Targeted Supplementary Feeding Program (TSFP) providers.
  • Ensure the prepositioning of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) in coordination and partnership with UNICEF. 
  • Implement a mother-led Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) project to capacitate mothers to identify and refer children with malnutrition and refer them to the nearest health centres.
  • Train and build the capacity of government and medical local staff at IDP sites on the management of acute malnutrition.

IOM will continue to coordinate with cluster stakeholders and local authorities to avoid disruption and duplication of activities. IOM will implement these activities with the Ministry of Health.

Funding required
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies

IOM's WASH activities aim to contribute to the continuation and restoration of access to safe and equitable basic WASH services for drought-affected populations, including vulnerable IDP and host communities in multiple regions in Somalia. Furthermore, one of the most significant drivers of conflict in Somalia is water scarcity. All of the water-oriented interventions save lives, but also promote inter-communal cooperation and collaboration. These interventions respond to assessed needs, but also reach areas recovered by the Government of Somalia from AS.  

Key activities include:

  • Construct and rehabilitate/build strategic water points such as boreholes and shallow wells, for multi-use that will provide continued, equitable, safe, sufficient, and sustainable water to regions prone to natural hazards as targeted by the Cluster. 
  • Emergency water trucking services to ensure the provision of life-saving safe and clean water to beneficiaries at IDP sites and hard-to-reach areas, to supplement the water supply for immediate and life-saving response as plans are made for more sustainable solutions.
  • Construct new emergency sanitation facilities (following the Cluster’s specifications) targeting populations without access to basic sanitation and hygiene.
  • Strengthen the capacity of the Federal Government of Somalia and federal members states, community leaders, and water committees/technicians to improve coordination with government authorities and communities and the sustainability of the constructed/ rehabilitated WASH infrastructures. The capacity and coordination of communities and the government will strengthen ownerships and maintenance in case of any damage to the infrastructure.
  • Nurture community participation in focused hygiene promotion practices that target behaviour change through training and community sensitization campaigns. All trainings, awareness-raising, and capacity-building activities will follow national guidelines on COVID-19 preventive measures, e.g. on physical distancing, to avoid mass gatherings and minimize risks of exposure.
  • Coordinate WASH interventions in health facilities, at points of entry, and at the household level where needed.
  • Work with communities to rebuild water and irrigation infrastructure (I.e.: boreholes and shallow wells).
  • Establish systems for rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge through trucking. 
  • Construct sanitation facilities such as latrines both inside and outside of IPD sites, to increase the sanitation conditions at the sites, thus reducing the risk of diseases.
Funding required
Plan types

Shelter, settlements and non-food items

Somalia is at the crossroads of mixed and complex migration flows, often resulting in internal and external displacement due to ongoing conflicts, climate-related shocks, communicable disease outbreaks, and weak social protection mechanisms. It is estimated that the pressing need for shelter will persist and worsen into 2023. With an increasing trend of displacement/migration to urban centres related to climatic shocks, insecurity, and better livelihood opportunities, there is a greater need for emergency, transitional or robust shelter to accommodate all new arrivals.

IOM will continue its Shelter and Settlement support through the following:

  • Distribute emergency S-NFIs to newly displaced through in-kind and Cash Based Interventions (CBIs) both outside and inside IDP sites. 
  • Implement the pilot on shelter typology of enhanced emergency shelters by providing concrete slabs underpinning emergency shelters to allow IDPs to build more permanent structures over time if desired.
  • Manage the common S-NFI pipeline to support Shelter Cluster partners for emergency responses to also expand the assistance to hard-to-reach areas.
Funding required
Plan types
Communities in Galmudug collect water from a water reservoir filled up through an IOM water trucking activity. © IOM 2022 / Ismail Salad Osman
Communities in Galmudug collect water from a water reservoir filled up through an IOM water trucking activity. © IOM 2022 / Ismail Salad Osman

Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Former combatant / fighter, Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM Somalia will aim to support IDPs, returnees, vulnerable migrants, and host communities in crisis-affected areas of Somalia (including individuals at-risk or formerly associated with armed/criminal groups). IOM Somalia’s programming will contribute to addressing the long-term impacts of the crisis and displacement in Somalia, by supporting the local non-governmental organisations, state, and federal governments to find durable solutions for IDPs and returnees through a holistic and integrated approach. IOM’s support, both directly and through implementing partners (IPs), will target IDPs living in camps and out-of-camp settings to better assess their situation, build their resilience and explore options for their local integration, relocation or return. These are primarily, but not limited to, the host communities, people living in hard-to-reach areas, peri-urban and urban settlements, as well as people living in flood-prone areas and riverbeds. IOM will strive to ensure greater attention and support to the needs of the most vulnerable groups such as women, youth and child-headed households, as well as elderly, single-headed families, persons with disabilities and GBV survivors, among others. IOM Somalia’s programming will contribute to addressing the long-term impacts of the crisis and displacement in Somalia, by supporting the local non-governmental organizations, state, and federal governments to find durable solutions for IDPs and returnees through a holistic and integrated approach, aligned with the Secretary General’s Action Agenda on Internal Displacement.

Community stabilization

IOM supports populations that are most vulnerable to inter-communal and extremist violence, conflict over natural resources, climate insecurity, and marginalization by state and non-state actors. Target communities reside in hard-to-reach locations. Given the complexity of layered vulnerabilities, interventions are multi-sectoral and integrated, concentrating on critical infrastructure, capacity support to local government, inter-communal reconciliation, and rebuilding the value chains in local economies. The Community Stabilization Index and Transhumance Tracking Tool are used to inform and guide IOM’s Community Stabilization interventions. Activities include:

  • Deliver a rapid stabilization package of activities in areas recovered from AS by the government of Somalia (specifically in Hirshabelle and Galmudug, with other states to be determined): critical infrastructure, capacity-building for local authorities, reconciliation and environmental mediation action, bolstering local dispute resolution mechanisms and linking to formal rule of law structures, and logistical support to the government. This may include community engagement and policing (CEP) initiatives by strengthening community law enforcement relationships and dialogue, as well as enhancing the capacities and accountability of law enforcement to address the security and safety needs of entire IDP communities and/or communities recovered from AS.
  • Facilitate inter-communal joint investment through matching grants in critical services, infrastructure, and natural resource governance architecture. 
  • Extend climate security programming through an inter-ministerial steering committee to four southern states of Somalia: Jubaland, Southwest, Hirshabelle, and Galmudug: deliver integrated natural resource packages, establish integrated natural resource management networks, extend women-led water diplomacy, and scale up economies in the agriculture and livestock sectors. 
  • Expand Stabilization through Education Programming (STEP) into the newly recovered areas of Hirshabelle and Galmudug states.
  • Introduce the Enterprise Development Fund (EDF) to the agricultural sector in the riverine corridors of the Juba and Shabelle rivers (Jubaland, Southwest, Hirshabelle), and to the livestock sector in the Arid and Semi-Arid (ASAL) areas of Galmudug and Hirshabelle states.
Funding required
Plan types

Peacebuilding and peace preservation

IOM’s disengagement, disassociation, rehabilitation and reconciliation (DDRR) programming supports the Federal Government of Somalia to implement its National Programme for the Treatment and Handling of Disengaged Combatants by supporting outreach, rehabilitation, and reintegration of men and women formerly associated with AS, thereby addressing one of the root causes of the conflict. Activities include:

  • Building the capacity of the Government of Somalia to manage the National Programme and take on full financial and operational ownership via a five-year transition plan. 
  • 100% operational expense coverage of five rehabilitation centres (three residential centres for men, two-day centres for women) providing case management, literacy and numeracy, religious and civic education, entrepreneurship, and vocational training. 
  • Supporting two civil society organizations provide community-based reintegration support through safe spaces offering case management, mentorship, recreational activities, and social cohesion events together with the host community members.
Funding required
Plan types

Durable solutions

The Durable Solutions Programme works with the government, donors, communities, UN, and NGO partners to increase the dividends of rapid urbanization in Somalia and ensure that these gains result in dignified and voluntary processes of local integration, return, and resettlement. Interventions progressively ensure increased access to basic social services, land tenure security, housing, and livelihoods, in line with Somali government policy frameworks such as the National Development Plan (NDP), Wadajir Framework for Local Governance, FGS National Durable Solutions Strategy, FMS/BRA Durable Solutions Strategies, Somalia aid architecture including Somalia Development and Reconstruction Facility (SDRF) and other institutional arrangements. The programme will aim to be more flexible and adaptive with a crisis modifier (for early solutions) and will harness rural-urban linkages, diaspora remittances, and private sector engagement opportunities to contribute to durable solutions for IDPs, returnees and host communities, when possible. 
Activities will follow IOM's Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework. The PRDS Framework outlines four programmatic pillars that support progression towards durable solutions. These pillars include: 1. Protection, safety, and security; 2. An adequate standard of living (access to adequate food, water sanitation and hygiene, housing, health services, and education); 3. Access to sustainable livelihoods and employment; and 4. Inclusive governance. The intervention framework will:

  • Promote the sustainable integration of displaced communities in urban areas by empowering local governments to leverage value generated by urbanization and urban infrastructure investment and to increase displaced-affected communities DACs’ self-reliance and access to sustainable basic services in three Somali cities (Baidoa, Bossaso, and Beletweyne).
  • Promote a rights-based, people-centred, and government-led community-based planning process to entrench ownership and sustainability of interventions and concurrently bridge the HDPN.
  • Promote a livelihoods-centred approach to foster comprehensive urban solutions linked to HLP, access to basic services, solid waste management, conflict, and climate sensitivity in targeted rural and urban areas.
  • Under the Somalia Cities Initiatives, and with the participation of key inter-sectorial stakeholders, consultations and discussions will continue with the aim of finding integrated short and long-term solutions to the scarcity of water in Baidoa.
  • Continue to develop the understanding of durable solutions in the Somali context with a range of supporting interventions that explore mitigating root causes of displacement and building pathways to sustainable (re)integration including research, strategy and policy development and measure of progress towards durable solutions using tools such as the Local (Re)Integration Assessment (LORA).
Funding required
Plan types

Health system strengthening

Throughout 2023, IOM will continue its efforts towards health system strengthening. Public health risk reduction, capacity-building and health system strengthening supports the national health system to better respond to shocks such as droughts, flooding, severe food shortages, displacement, disease outbreaks and limited access to essential services, which impact the health and well-being of displaced populations and host communities. IOM will continue the partnership with and build the capacity of the Ministry of Health at the national and local levels with the following activities. IOM will:

  • Strengthen the capacity of health workers to ensure the delivery of high-quality medical service through the provision of trainings. 
  • Capacity-building for national health workers at the state and national levels.
  • Foster coordination and information-sharing through the creation and hosting of Global Fund Steering Committees.
  • Train and build the capacity of government and medical local staff at IDP sites on the management of acute malnutrition. Preposition essential medicines, medical supplies, medical equipment, personal protective equipment, and infection prevention and control supplies to ensure uninterrupted supply in the event of an emergency.
  • Conduct SMART surveys and IYCF surveys to strengthen monitoring and surveillance, analysis, and utilization of early warning information.
Funding required
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations

IOM aims to deliver immediate, appropriate, and life-saving WASH services for populations in hard-to-reach areas and urban and rural settlements while aiming to make these interventions as scalable and sustainable as possible in the long term. IOM will plan to support populations in urban areas with: 

  • Developing water infrastructure in urban and peri-urban areas through the construction and rehabilitation of flood-proof water systems.
  • Connecting communal facilities such as schools and hospitals to water infrastructures. 
  • Capacity building to institutions on managing WASH facilities.
Funding required
Plan types

Restoring housing, land and property rights

Internally displaced populations are moving into urban centres in Somalia, with newly drought-displaced households frequently settling on private land. This leaves IDPs in existing and new sites at risk of forced evictions as a result of unclear tenure arrangements. In response to these risks, IOM will provide displaced communities with timely and effective access to information on House, Land and Property (HLP) rights, while ensuring that HLP is taken into account during S-NFI and WASH interventions.

Funding required
Plan types

Strengthen preparedness and reduce disaster risk

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

In a bid to prevent further displacements, IOM implements activities that contribute to building resilience, peace, and social cohesion. IOM is scaling up its presence and support in more secondary and tertiary towns in drought-affected areas, as well as in hard-to-reach and flood-prone areas, aiming to reach people closer to their place of origin. In that manner, IOM can contribute to mitigating the substantial movement and increased pressure on basic services in the main urban centres. 

Entities targeted include ministries, local and international non-governmental organizations (L/INGOs), and civil society organizations (CSOs).

Disaster prevention

Reducing risk and mitigating effects to upcoming (and expected) crises is critical in Somalia to put an end to the vicious cycle of endless crises that result in increased IDP caseloads and exacerbate vulnerabilities across different social groups and populations. Based on this context, IOM intends to focus on enhancing prevention and mitigation measures in targeted locations to improve the protection of populations in disaster-prone areas of Somalia. Key activities include:

  • Set up early warning systems in disaster-prone areas where IOM is present.
  • Implement mitigation measures in the fields of health, nutrition, CCCM, and WASH to reduce risks in disaster-prone communities.
  • In flood-prone areas, work in camps and host communities to reduce the impact of flooding through structural and non-structural flood mitigation.
  • In drought and flood-prone areas, focus on community-based disaster risk management interventions related to WASH to ensure sustained access to safe water and sanitation through environmental protection measures and trainings.
  • Improve the preparedness and capacity of communities to respond to further disaster-related shocks through training and involvement in the selection of safe sites for shelters and WASH-related interventions.   

Disaster management often relies on external experts and expensive or inaccessible resources. Community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) is a process of disaster risk management in which at-risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring, and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities. This approach means that the people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster risk management activities.   

At the core, CBDRM recognises the importance and specificity of local risk patterns and trends and decentralizes responsibilities and resources for disaster risk reduction to the communities themselves. This process is achieved by reducing the: 

  • Probability of failure through risk reduction measures. 
  • Consequences of failure, in terms of fewer lives lost, fewer injuries, and reduced direct and indirect damage. 
  • Time needed for recovery.  
  • Patterns of vulnerability that can develop during the process of reconstruction. 

In 2023, IOM aims to establish this CBDRM approach in select locations in Somalia.  As a first step, IOM will facilitate the establishment of village-level CBDRM Committees with the aim of better utilizing local knowledge, resources, and leadership to equip the population with tools and strategies to reduce risks that challenge their communities. The Disaster Risk Management Committees DRMCs will then be equipped with the knowledge and skills to develop their Community Action Plans, which will eventually be implemented through community-based projects to prepare for and respond more effectively as the first-line responders to recurrent floods, droughts, and other key identified hazards in their neighbourhoods/ villages.

Funding required
Plan types

Health components of preparedness and risk reduction

Acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) and cholera outbreaks have been reported in several regions across Somalia, with severe cases identified at IDP camps, due to the rains that were experienced during the last weeks of the past year, compounded by the weak hygiene and sanitation situations in these areas. IOM plans to support the MoH of the affected regions to scale up preventive and curative measures to contain the outbreaks. Some of the action plans are:

  • Deploy medical staff at treatment centres, as well as community health workers to sensitize the community and carry out health and hygiene promotion sessions.
  • Establish case management and referral pathways for mild diarrhoea cases at the centres. 
  • Preposition essential medicines, medical supplies, medical equipment, personal protective equipment and infection prevention and control supplies to ensure uninterrupted supply in the event of an emergency. 
  • Facilitate the deployment of rapid response teams at key points of entry to enhance epidemiological surveillance through screening and referrals in the event of a public health emergency. 
  • Build health system capacity to prevent, detect and respond to disease outbreaks and health threats, including through the strengthening of surveillance systems, population mobility mapping (PMM), training community events-based surveillance; data collection and ensuring information is integrated into the national surveillance and reporting mechanisms.
Plan types

Emergency preparedness

With the main objective to contribute to improved resilience for vulnerable communities affected by recurrent disasters including droughts and floods, IOM Somalia will: 

  • Provide with an integrated intervention to strengthen Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Capacity and building the capacity of national institutions.  
  • Ensure support to coordination mechanisms at national level 
  • Focus on Strengthening Early Warning Systems to ensure the proper dissemination of flood warnings, mitigation, and prevention-related information at national, local and community levels. 
  • Conduct baseline and flood risk assessments in flood-prone areas  
  • Support the development of early detection data systems and analysis in disaster-prone areas, to better inform and equip early emergency responses 
  • Improved preparedness and response capacity of relevant stakeholders to recurrent disasters through Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM). 
  • Focus on flood risk mitigation works, specifically in order to ensure access to water and sanitation and hygiene in flood/drought prone areas. 
  • Document and evaluate how the different Disaster Risk Reduction activities impact the lives of the communities and the response capacity of the national institutions when they are coupled with participatory approaches and capacity-building exercises. 
  • Construction and maintenance of water supply sources such as boreholes and shallow wells by the WASH team to improve communities’ resilience during drought crisis. 
  • Implementation and support of emergency contingency stock for partners across Somalia for enhance preparedness to rapid and effective emergency responses. 
Funding required
Plan types

Contribute to an Evidence Based and Efficient Crisis Response System

Funding required
At risk communities
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM will continue to invest in and expand its geographical coverage of data gathering country-wide. Through an expansion of ETT assessments, Flow Monitoring activities, and additional analyses, it will compile the necessary relevant and accurate data to strengthen its project implementation and monitoring. 

280 organizations are identified as beneficiaries of this action, mainly humanitarian and development organizations, INGOs, NGOs, and government line ministries, corresponding to the operational partners included in the OCHA Somalia: “Operational Presence (3W) - August 2022”.

Displacement tracking

IOM will continue to contribute to evidence-based decision-making for operations in Somalia through the DTM. Under the coordination of the IMAWG and in collaboration with all clusters, DTM will provide reliable and up-to-date information on the number of displaced people, their location, profile, displacement trends, reasons for displacement, and needs disaggregated by age and sex to better assist and inform governmental and IOM programme crisis response. In particular, DTM’s data will feed into the 2021-2022 roadmap of the IDP Working Group in order to provide regular updates on the IDP stocks across Somalia. DTM tools have the potential to be tailored to take into account changes in the national context as well as the information needs of responders working across the HDPN. Furthermore, IOM’s analytical and data collection capacities will be mobilized to provide strategic and granular operational data on displacement dynamics caused by shocks such as drought and flooding. 

Activities include:

  • Regularly collect data on populations affected by displacement through the implementation of the DTM’s Baseline Assessment, aiming to provide a country-wide mapping and quantitative estimates (stocks) of the presence of IDPs, returnees (from abroad and from internal displacement), and residents at the lowest possible administrative level.
  • Analyse and disseminate data, to regularly share information with national authorities, local communities, and partners through reports, dashboards, data sets, and maps.
  • Utilize the Emergency Trends Tracking tool to provide granular and timely information on individuals displaced by drought or flooding.
  • Implement Flow Monitoring across seven locations to monitor cross-border movements to enhance understanding of the human mobility dynamics and needs of crisis-affected migrants
  • Broaden and deepen key analytical tools to inform transition and recovery programming, including the Community Stabilization Index (COSI), Transhumance Tracking Tool (TTT), and the Local (Re)Integration Assessment (LORA).  
  • Implement research partnerships, including academic ones, on topics related to Durable Solutions and sustainable peace,  capitalizing on  IOM Somalia data sets for their analysis.
Funding required
Plan types

Support services for response actors

On Support Services for Response Actors, IOM Somalia will:

  • Continue to support service providers, particularly two MRCs, three medical facilities in Berbera, Bossaso, and Hargeisa, and three transit and reception centres in Mogadishu, Berbera, and Bossaso. These facilities provide a range of services including accommodation, meals, medical screening, registration for HVR, NFIs, awareness-raising on the risks of irregular migration, and medical outreach activities. 
  • Provide material support to create an enabling environment for the protection and assistance of vulnerable migrants in Somalia. These are government services, CBOs, and grassroots organizations already providing referral assistance to migrants, returnees, and host communities.

In 2023, the CCCM Cluster will continue to play an active role at the national level and via the ICCG advocating for improved living conditions in IDP sites and strategic fundraising decisions allowing for partners to target IDP sites and populations articulated within the HRP sectors. Furthermore, the CCCM Cluster will strive to unlock new partnerships via cross-cutting initiatives that cross over into durable solutions interventions. Through its role in the CCCM Cluster, key IOM activities include:

  • Strive to improve both intra- and inter-sector coordination at the sub-national level through technical support of cluster focal points in seven states within the country. These initiatives will link with durable solutions programming when possible, aspiring for the achievement of relocation and integration by securing long-term tenure agreements for IDPs.
  • Support partners with a range of high-quality programmatic tools, which will be revised, standardized, and updated as needed; with a continued lens of fostering site-level inclusion and resilience. 
  • Provide capacity-building for CCCM partners, local authorities, and other humanitarian/development partners with the aim of enriching the understanding of CCCM principles, ensuring capacity to implement these principles, and establishing a clear exit plan for the sector. Under these activities, the Custer will continue to promote localization measures to strengthen the participation of national partners.
  • Provide an information management function to assist in compiling data to form a baseline for functional and verified IDP sites, in addition to actively contributing data for the establishment of an overall IDP population within Somalia.
  • Create information products that visualize some of the important data categories captured by partners such as needs/gap analysis, complaints feedback mechanism trends, and site verification updates.
Funding required
Plan types
Operational presence in


International staff and affiliated work force
National staff and affiliated work force
IOM field office

The map used here is for illustration purposes only. Names and boundaries do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.

Figures are as of 31 December 2022. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.

With thanks to our current donors