The Government of Iraq is supported to develop and implement inclusive strategies towards well-managed migration, as well as recovery, peacebuilding and stabilization initiatives that address root causes of displacement and support durable solutions. Migrants, displaced populations, returnees and host communities in Iraq are able to exercise their rights in an inclusive and equitable environment.
Save lives and respond to needs through humanitarian assistance and protection
IOM will maintain its humanitarian assistance for populations who remain in displacement, with a focus on those with multiple layers of needs and those in areas with severe living conditions. IOM will assist host communities in areas of displacement and communities of return where services are inadequate or overstretched. Assistance will also target IDPs who have returned but are facing severe conditions such as residual insecurity, damage to properties and public infrastructure, limited access to services and livelihood opportunities, and fractured social relations. Through its presence in informal sites and out-of-camp locations, IOM will operate under a holistic approach, including referring targeted populations to transition assistance and supporting displaced populations through the Facilitated Voluntary Movement programme. IOM will also maintain its capacity to respond to sudden displacements caused by violent events, natural disasters or any other cause. Assistance to stranded migrants will continue, including the provision of comprehensive case management and protection services.
Cash-based assistance will be used to provide ad hoc and urgent assistance to highly vulnerable households affected by sudden displacement, those who are facing multiple and urgent needs, and vulnerable returnees as a temporary measure to respond to their most urgent needs. Activities will include:
- Provision of Multi-purpose Cash Assistance (MPCA), in line with the principles of the Cash Working Group, to vulnerable households, which can be used to cover basic needs and to reduce negative coping mechanisms. Unconditional MPCA is based on the Survival Minimum Expenditure Basket (SMEB) of a household in Iraq living near or below the poverty line, composed of expenses related to housing, food, health, transport, fuel and water;
- Provision of emergency cash, especially for those having multiple needs and to cope with unforeseen shocks. IOM will provide one-off cash support for the most vulnerable households in secondary displacement affected by camp consolidation and closures or other emergency situations, and potentially those newly displaced due to an emergency event.
In close coordination with the government and with partners providing assistance to IDPs in camps, out-of-camp settlements and host communities, IOM will provide CCCM support to displaced populations. Specifically, IOM will:
- Provide direct camp management and camp coordination and/or camp management support to government camp management actors, if applicable, facilitating coordination with service providers, partners, IDP community representatives and authorities;
- Provide mobile camp management and camp management support to informal displacement sites;
- Establish and maintain governance and inclusive community participation structures in supported sites;
- Ensure maintenance and upgrade infrastructure in sites to maintain minimum safety and living standards;
- Implement necessary infrastructure and shelter upgrades for disability access and inclusion;
- Promote community-based risk mitigation and infrastructure work, such as clean-up campaigns, drainage maintenance, and rubble clearance through a Cash for Work (CfW) approach.
- Monitor and coordinate with service providers in the area, establishing governance structures through inclusive community consultations, and implementing protection risk reduction;
- Enhance information sharing, coordination and referral of needs to humanitarian and transition partners, for populations in out-of-camps locations, particularly in informal sites;
- Establish and run inclusive and accessible Accountability, Information, Feedback and Referral Mechanisms across all locations;
- Service tracking, needs analysis, and referrals to facilitated returns and durable solutions programming for protracted IDP populations.
IOM will maintain coordination with governmental and other partners, and as such will work with authorities and humanitarian and transition actors to advocate for planned and principled camps closure and consolidation processes, to ensure voluntary and informed decisions by IDPs.
IOM will support the provision of comprehensive primary health care services to IDPs, returnees and host communities in targeted locations with high levels of displacement and in areas of return with a lack of access to services, as identified in close coordination with the government and health partners. Interventions will include:
- Delivery of primary health care services in camps and out-of-camp settings, through the provision of staff, medical supplies and equipment, and offering transportation services for non-emergency and emergency cases;
- Providing treatment of acute illnesses, immunization, reproductive and maternal and child health, and management of non-communicable diseases, preparing for and responding to disease outbreaks in and out of camp settings;
- Implementing health promotion activities and community-based disease surveillance and establishing referral systems for individuals requiring specialized care, including survivors of GBV, those facing protection issues or in need of MHPSS services.
- Supporting preparedness and response to diseases of outbreak potential, such as Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), leishmaniasis, and Cholera, through trainings and capacity building for frontline healthcare providers, and prepositioning contingency stocks of essential commodities, such as PPE, infection prevention and control (IPC) supplies, and essential drugs.
IOM will provide MHPSS to IDPs in situations of protracted displacement, to returnees and community members in communities with low access to such services, and to populations affected by sudden displacement due to natural or man-made disasters, with a focus on services which ensure a strengthened protection environment in the community. MHPSS services will be aligned with the IOM Manual on Community-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement, and the IASC Guidelines on MHPSS in Emergency Settings.
Activities will focus on:
- Continuing to address MHPSS needs of populations returning from displacement outside of Iraq, such as those in Syria, during their transit in camp and when returning to their areas of origin;
- Facilitating access to MHPSS services and other measures, ensuring that social considerations and the safety of beneficiaries are taken into account in service provision. Services provided aim at mitigating and preventing negative mental health and psychosocial consequences resulting from difficult living conditions of IDPs in situations of protracted displacement and returnees living in areas with severe conditions and lack of services and opportunities;
- Strengthening family and community support for people who can maintain their mental health and psychosocial well-being if they receive help in accessing this level of assistance. Build rapport with communities, helping to reach out to vulnerable persons requiring further assistance, who would otherwise not have approached services;
- Providing focused MHPSS services (individual and group counselling) to support vulnerable IDPs, returnees, and host communities. Offering Psychological First Aid to displaced individuals and families in distress;
- Providing psychiatric and clinical psychological consultations to people with pre-existing and/or emerging forms of severe stress, behavioural and relational problems, and mental disorder conditions.
IOM will provide movement assistance to IDPs, stranded migrants and other populations in need, including sudden movements due to natural or man-made events. IOM will:
- Provide movement assistance to IDPs, stranded migrants and other populations in need in coordination with authorities to return to their communities or relocate;
- Assist stranded migrants and victims of trafficking with comprehensive case management and protection services, including movement assistance;
- Provide all necessary services before and during transportation, including health screenings, monitoring of protection risks and referrals in areas of origin.
IOM will respond to the needs of individuals and households vulnerable to violence, exploitation and abuse. This includes survivors of human rights violations, including gender-based violence and trafficking in persons. IOM will:
- Provide protection case management services at the individual and household levels, involving assessment and planning, referral to specialized services, emergency cash or in-kind assistance, and follow-up. This includes, but is not limited to, Gender-Based Violence (GBV) case management services and victims of trafficking case management;
- Provide information on available protection services to IDPs, returnees and host communities including referrals in case of need;
- Raise awareness of human rights violations including GBV and trafficking in persons among the crisis-affected population;
In addition, IOM will support partner organizations and the government to enhance their capacity to prevent human rights violations, mitigate the risk and support individuals through the following activities:
- Identify and strengthen referral pathways in camp and out-of-camp settings;
- Assess protection risks and needs of communities through protection monitoring and support evidence-based programming;
- Train governmental and non-governmental actors on protection mainstreaming and safeguarding;
- Make training opportunities available to border authorities on identifying and assisting vulnerable people, flagging protection concerns and preventing rights abuses;
- Ensure a robust approach to protection from sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA), including through collaboration with the PSEA Network, continued training to staff and partners and awareness raising to the affected population;
- Ensure that protection is mainstreamed in all of IOM’s interventions through training of staff and partners on protection’s principles, diversity and inclusion (including the inclusion of people with disabilities as outlined in the IOM Iraq Disability Inclusion Strategy and people with diverse sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics), review of tools used for programming and operation, reinforcing access to community-based complaint mechanisms (CBCMs) and establishing/reinforcing safeguarding measures including the Child Safeguarding Policy;
- Advocate for better access to services and complaint mechanisms for groups of people in vulnerable situations experiencing discrimination and challenges on the basis of their diversity.
IOM’s Shelter and Non-Food Items (SNFI) interventions will focus on populations in protracted displacement in out-of-camp locations, particularly in informal displacement sites, and those facing sudden displacement due to natural or man-made causes. Assistance may also be provided to returnees and members of return communities in locations with critical needs.
For Shelter, IOM will focus on:
- Provision of critical shelter upgrades where IDPs are displaced in unfinished transitional locations or locations not intended to serve as shelters, such as public buildings, schools, mosques and other makeshift shelters. The shelter response will aim at significantly improving safety, security and privacy for improved and dignified living conditions for the families;
- Light rehabilitation will focus on shelters in informal settlements that need essential repairs to grant safety, privacy, and protection from weather conditions. This intervention modality will be implemented in parallel with critical upgrades based on each site assessment, and serve the purpose of rationalizing efficiency by helping more people with fewer resources.
For NFI assistance, IOM will focus on:
- Provision of basic NFI kits to cover essential NFI needs through in-kind assistance and vouchers. This will be mainly directed at populations affected by sudden displacement or those in locations with severe unmet NFI needs;
- Provision of replacement items targeting the IDP households in protracted displacement, who have received NFI assistance in the past, but require additional support to replace used, damaged, and lost items as their displacement continues;
- Maintaining a contingency stock of NFI items to rapidly respond to needs arising from sudden natural or man-made events, with a focus on prioritizing the needs in Jadaah 1 camp.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
IOM will increase its assistance to populations in protracted displacement, especially in informal sites and other out-of-camp locations, and in communities of return to address key barriers to return, social cohesion and recovery. IOM will operate under the durable solutions framework to identify the causes of displacement and propose adapted interventions, in collaboration with the government and partners. IOM will: (1) assist IDPs to better assess their situation and support safe and sustainable voluntary returns or relocations when the environment is conducive; (2) support returnees and communities in areas of return to access basic services, livelihoods, shelter and community infrastructure; (3) work closely with communities and authorities to improve safety and security, social cohesion and facilitate reintegration; (4) provide assistance to survivors of human rights violations; (5) contribute to the capacity-building of government authorities, civil society organizations and NGOs to facilitate community stabilization and resume services; and (6) improve the availability of and access to quality health services in urban areas with large populations of IDPs, and in areas of return. In addition, through its coordination role and building on its extensive program and policy expertise, IOM will provide technical support to Iraqi authorities at the national and local levels, as well as to the national and international organizations to strengthen knowledge on durable solutions and on the rights of people affected by displacement, and to enhance responses and solutions to displacement, as well as to strengthen preparedness capacity.
IOM’s community stabilization programming will continue to address drivers of instability at the community level to prevent the country from backsliding into conflict, establish foundations for longer-term recovery, and reduce the drivers of forced migration. The programme will focus on communities of origin and return, and will directly contribute to facilitating returns, relocation and reintegration. The main components will be the restoration of basic rights, helping vulnerable populations to access public services and promoting inclusivity of public services, promoting non-violent resolution of conflicts, encouraging continued community engagement and policing (CEP) approaches, and facilitating safe and durable (re)integration through:
- Strengthening government capacities to perform core functions and bringing relevant government entities together with communities in a way that increases participatory decision-making, strengthens mutual trust, and builds accountability;
- Promoting social cohesion and enabling communities to manage local conflicts and promote a culture of peace, especially through empowering youth to participate in society in a productive, constructive and peaceful manner, and fostering community reconciliation;
- Promoting non-violent political processes, civic education, social policy development, and supporting inclusive economic recovery. Specifically, IOM will work with community members, groups and civil society organizations to identify and co-design a range of activities that support the engagement of vulnerable or marginalized groups, specifically youth and women, in political processes, local policy development and community-development initiatives. Activities will leverage local connectors, such as shared history and heritage, artistic traits and volunteerism, and encourage interaction between divergent community groups and recent returnees.
- Increasing confidence in public institutions through community engagement in decision-making in the local safety and security dialogues and institutional capacity building for the CP department - Ministry of Interior (MoI) through training and strategic development to improve community safety and civic engagement;
- Increasing access to basic public services, and supporting people in need of social protection, through direct support (transportation, accompaniment, interpretation, etc.) to access social welfare entitlements;
- Increasing access to income for vulnerable communities through cash-for-work and the graduation approach;
- Promoting economic recovery and long-term sustainable work via private sector development through the Individual Livelihoods Assistance and the Enterprise Development Fund;
- Contributing to financial inclusion, through increased access to formal finance for SMEs and individuals.
- Improving access to safe, dignified and sustainable housing;
- Facilitating access to services, through the rehabilitation of key community infrastructure, including roads, markets, electricity grids and water networks, public buildings, health centres, schools or any other project benefiting both the community and helping to resume economic activity;
- Capacitating state and local governance, and promoting non-violent political processes, civic education, and social policy development through community policing, tribal engagement activities, youth and women empowerment programs;
- Supporting research and assessments examining the efficacity of social cohesion programming, including the relevance of contact theory to facilitating inter-ethnic and -sectarian relations in regions with levels of social tensions.
In partnership with the GoI, IOM will continue to address the main barriers to safe and sustainable returns and support IDPs, especially those remaining in informal sites and wishing to return, and returnees in achieving durable solutions. The Organization's durable solutions strategy aims at providing means to IDPs to sustainably resolve their displacement and thrive in their community of return or relocation. IOM’s extensive experience addressing displacement in Iraq will support the implementation of the UN Secretary-General's Action Agenda on Internal Displacement. IOM will contribute to assisting IDPs, returnees and households in areas of return or relocation through:
- Enabling and improving access to durable solutions for populations affected by displacement through a comprehensive, multi-sectoral programme in support of Facilitated and Voluntary Movements to support IDPs to return or relocate to their chosen location in a safe, dignified and sustainable manner.
- Enhancing government and community-level planning through community-based planning processes aimed at the identification of community-level issues affecting the feasibility or sustainability of returns and relocation and creating collective spaces for the identification of solutions.
- Improved access to safe, dignified and sustainable housing through an owner-driven housing rehabilitation or reconstruction program in areas of return where IDPs supported by the durable solutions program and vulnerable host communities are unable to return or sustainable settle due to damaged or destroyed housing. The housing rehabilitation and reconstruction program ensures verification and legal assistance to restore and access HLP rights.
- Provision of rental assistance for the most vulnerable IDPs households that didn't own property prior to displacement or are relocating or locally integrating, to ensure safe, dignified access to housing. Rental assistance information and counselling to enhance security of tenure for renters. Facilitated access to social services, through the rehabilitation of key community infrastructure, including roads, markets, electricity grids and water networks, public buildings, health centres, schools or any other project benefiting the community and helping to resume economic activity;
- Increased sustainable livelihood opportunities, including through the roll-out of the graduation approach, vocational, on-the-job and business trainings, support to micro-enterprises and small and medium businesses which show potential for job creation through IOM Iraq’s Enterprise Development Fund (EDF), and contributing to financial inclusion, through increased access to formal finance for SMEs and individuals.
- Reintegration services to respond to the needs of returnees, IDPs and affected communities to support recovery and stabilization approaches by linking affected communities with humanitarian and recovery services;
- Work to facilitate the returns and adherence to international human rights law related to the treatment of perceived affiliates, in addition to supporting activities for understanding and resolving the causes of displacement, including research, strategy and policy development and verification of progress;
- Run inclusive and accessible Accountability, Information, Feedback and Referral Mechanisms across all locations and for all implemented interventions, as well as for feedback on community-based planning outcomes;
- Support thematic research, reports and factsheets on durable solutions, protracted displacements and sustainability of returns, and the impact of disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic on economic recovery, among others;
- Through the DSTF, DSTWG and RWG, provide regular capacity-building on durable solutions for authorities, policy-makers and implementing organisations; foster capacity for local and national level planning and policy development to enable solutions; develop tools and methodologies for private sector engagement in durable solutions in collaboration with the GoI; and develop tools and methodologies for inclusiveness in providing durable solutions.
IOM will continue its advocacy and coordination on Durable Solutions by co-leading the DSTF (with UNDP) and DSTWG; as well as chairing the RWG and supporting the ABC groups. IOM and partners will continue to support advocacy efforts on durable solutions beyond return including local integration and settlement in third locations, in line with the IASC Framework on Durable Solutions and IOM’s Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations Framework.
IOM will continue working with the government to strengthen the health system in Iraq, to facilitate access to quality essential care, with a focus on health facilities serving a high number of displaced populations and in areas of return, through:
- Scaling up capacity building of health workers on medical and non-medical topics to improve quality of care and responsiveness and conduct supportive supervision;
- Rehabilitation of health facilities and provision of essential equipment and supplies to primary and secondary health care facilities;
- Strengthening MoH’s health promotion activities and expanding interventions designed to improve social cohesion in conflict-affected areas and areas of return and community-based health projects including community health services;
- Maintaining support to the National Tuberculosis Program to reduce TB transmission in Iraq through Improved detection and treatment, of TB cases, including contact and defaulter tracing;
- Expanding support for community-based surveillance, advocacy for the establishment of a national community-based surveillance system, and reinforcement of the national disease surveillance system;
- Supporting the implementation of the One Health approach at regional and local levels;
- Conducting targeted health assessments and operational research to inform program design and health system strengthening prioritization efforts for IOM Iraq.
- Improving awareness on climate change related health risks and supporting the development of a national public health adaptation plan and technical resources.
IOM will continue working to strengthen the national laboratory system through technical support and capacity building to existing laboratories to ensure quality standards are met including on biosafety and improving sample collection and transport systems.
IOM will implement MHPSS activities and support at the individual, family and community levels, contributing to wider efforts to mend social fabrics and strengthen social cohesion in post-conflict Iraq. IOM will:
- Design and conduct trainings and provide comprehensive support to facilitate the integration of MHPSS in conflict transformation and mediation;
- Focus on integration of MHPSS in livelihoods and development programmes, with IOM's Manual on Community-based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Displacement and Emergencies as guiding principles;
- Develop programme activities addressing the mental health and psychosocial consequences of climate change and extreme weather conditions in Iraq for risk mitigation;
- Expand MHPSS and livelihoods programme activities as a tool to mitigate the negative consequences of conflict and to foster peacebuilding.
IOM will continue to integrate peacebuilding and peace promotion activities into its programming in Iraq, notably through:
- Supporting government efforts to promote stability in areas which are struggling to absorb the large numbers of individuals who spontaneously disengaged from armed groups following the military defeat of ISIL and now require assistance to transition back to civilian life;
- In ‘liberated’ areas, supporting families with a perceived affiliation to extremist groups to access durable solutions, including through support which enables them to return to and reconcile with communities in areas of origin;
- Bolstering community resilience to future waves of violent extremism in these locations through Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE) programming, aligned with the National Strategy to Combat Violent Extremism Conducive to Terrorism and implemented in close cooperation with the Government of Iraq;
- Supporting research into the causes and consequences of displacement of former combatants and persons with perceived affiliation and methods to facilitate their reintegration into society.
Building on progress realized in Iraq at the policy level, IOM will:
- Keep supporting the GoI in implementing and operationalizing reparation laws (notably the Yazidi Survivors Law) in Iraq;
- Run capacity-building workshops for government officials from the Federal Government of Iraq, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and for CSOs and NGOs;
- Advocate for the right to reparations through awareness-raising programming and information campaigns. This will include policy guidance, expert advice and technical support to governments and local and international stakeholders to promote the transparent delivery of individual or collective reparations measures.
With an expected increased number of IDPs returning or relocating, IOM will maintain its assistance related to housing, land and property (HLP) issues, including lost or destroyed official papers, houses being occupied by another household or other general needs for legal assistance, with the aim to remove barriers to return, improving access to public services, and supporting conditions that enable durable solutions to displacement. To complement the other interventions in facilitating safe, dignified and sustainable return and reintegration, IOM will:
- Provide assistance to beneficiaries alongside housing-related interventions. Support includes both representation and information counselling and can be provided either through existing joint community-resource centres or in other forms adapted to the context of intervention and available administrative services;
- Provide assistance to obtain civil documentation, with a focus on IDPs for which official papers were lost or destroyed during the conflict, members of households with perceived affiliation, and children born under ISIL occupation;
- Build the capacity of civil society organisations and government partners, including through the provision of policy guidance, expert advice; and technical assistance for HLP rights, including, but not limited to, restitution;
- Contribute to the work of the DSTWG sub-group (Housing and HLP).
To support the recovery of conflict-affected governorates and contribute to the stability of communities, IOM will:
- Mobilize communities to identify and address their environmental issues through a community-based planning approach, support communities and local authorities to prioritize areas of interventions, including for infrastructural needs, and to ideate and implement their own activities to improve their environment;
- Identify critical infrastructural needs and provide rehabilitation support to facilities such as (but not limited to) water treatment plants, reverse osmosis (RO) stations and water and irrigation systems;
- Build the resilience of small-holder farmers through business start-up and development packages, vocational training and livelihoods opportunities aiming at developing skills of the population in rural water management;
- Through the Enterprise Development Fund, support innovative and environmentally sustainable private sector development to promote environmental sustainability and to expand businesses across selected agricultural value chains particularly affected by the effects of climate change and environmental degradation.
- Promote environmental sustainability in areas recovering from conflict, IOM supports interventions aiming to improve the environment through activities including debris removal, waste management, provision of waste crushers, and clean-up campaigns of irrigation canals. Where feasible, these activities will be implemented through cash-for-work modalities.
- Support resilience for businesses and MSMEs to adverse climate conditions and change and promote the sustainable use of natural resources such as water, agricultural technology manufacturers, and end users who wish to adopt climate-smart practices through the roll-out of the EDF-Green.
- Conduct research to enhance understanding on the impact of water and climate dynamics in governorates affected by water scarcity and adverse climate events, and build the capacity of the government in water and climate-related policies;
Strengthen preparedness and reduce disaster risk
IOM will provide continued support to the government, including national and local authorities, and selected CSOs and community leaders, for them to better prepare and to reduce vulnerability and exposure of vulnerable populations to disasters and crises. Specific focus will be placed on locations of displacement and return to reduce further displacement, and on locations particularly at risk due to environmental or conflict concerns. This will include: (1) supporting the GoI to improve preparedness plans and coordination with humanitarian and other actors; (2) providing technical assistance to enforce appropriate health regulations and strengthen health systems; and (3) reinforce capacities in providing adapted MHPSS services to prevent or mitigate impacts of disasters, including through additional support to local actors. IOM will also support efforts to include and mainstream preparedness and risk reduction in all programming, in close collaboration with government and non-governmental actors.
IOM Iraq’s work on DRR will contribute to the government’s efforts to implement the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. IOM’s DRR programme will develop strategies in an effort to reduce disaster risk and strengthen resilience, paying particular attention to at-risk communities, including displaced populations, and other vulnerable groups such as returnees, with the aim of preventing or reducing displacement through support for prevention and mitigation, risk governance and information, as well as strengthening resilience. With this aim IOM will:
- Conduct hazard mapping and multi-hazard risk assessments;
- Expand efforts for data collection and analysis of impacts of disasters and climate change on displacement in the Southern and central parts of Iraq and extend to other affected areas;
- Establish community-based disaster risk management committees, and establish community-level early warning systems in collaboration with local governance councils, national hydro-meteorological organizations and the national disaster management authority;
- Support on evacuation management and relocation guideline development for communities impacted by climate change and disasters;
- Conduct dialogue initiatives with key government and non-government stakeholders such as NGOs on mobility, risks, and resilience;
- Support capacity building of the government on risk-informed policies and strategies, including building knowledge of nature-based solutions as a means to prevent disasters/reduce the effects of disasters such as drought and flash flooding, in addition to environmental sustainability plan/engagement on disaster loss accounting and reporting system capacity development;
- Implement DRR community infrastructure to mitigate the impact of disasters on IDP informal sites, build hazard resilience, and engage adaptive solutions.
IOM will keep supporting government authorities and CSOs to build their capacities for disaster preparedness and response, in line with humanitarian principles, and to mitigate risks of forced displacement due to environmental factors, including disasters. IOM will:
- Collaborate closely on contingency planning with key stakeholders in charge of responding to the impacts of disasters, such as national and local authorities, civil society organizations and community leaders;
- Continue to implement targeted trainings including on MEND and MICIC, based on assessed priority needs and consider additional investment in inter-agency common processes including carrying out risk-informed planning workshops, and providing technical assistance to better equip those actors to include principled emergency preparedness and responses to better anticipate and face future displacement. These should include contingency planning, information management and coordination, logistics and warehousing, service mapping and emergency coordination with national and international actors;
- Work with key actors to include displacement populations, especially those in informal sites, in emergency preparedness planning;
- Maintain operational capacities readiness and up-to-date procedures to rapidly intervene in case of displacements due to sudden events such as disasters or violent conflict;
- Assess readiness and the state of current infrastructure to respond to potential high-volume movements at borders (including air borders), such as staffing and material needs, and policy frameworks to support humanitarian border management.
IOM will continue supporting the GoI in meeting the requirements of the International Health Regulations (2005) in line with the results of the Joint External Evaluation and through supporting the implementation of the National Action Plan for Health Security by:
- Strengthen local capacity for health emergency responses through improving disease surveillance, provision of equipment and prepositioning of supplies, and trainings;
- Training of MoH personnel on population mobility mapping (PMM) and conducting population mobility mapping exercises at national and sub-national levels. The PMMs will assist in identifying public health risks and capacities;
- Supporting the development of emergency response plans and contingency plans at the local level.
IOM will contribute to strengthening public health capacities at PoEs through:
- Conducting assessments of public health core capacities at points of entry;
- Training border health personnel on standard operating procedures for preventing, detecting, and managing public health risks;
- Rehabilitation and infrastructural upgrades to PoEs, especially WASH capacities and areas designated for public health personnel and assessments, and the provision of essential equipment.
IOM will work on strengthening the services offered to people facing protracted displacement, new displacements and returns, to support their mental health, and prevent neurological or substance use disorders, among others. IOM's MHPSS programme will:
- Support the government in the operationalization of the National Suicide prevention strategy and in following the plans for implementation;
- Contribute to supporting the health system's capacity to respond to the long-term mental health and psychosocial impacts of changes in psychosocial behaviours resulting from the pandemic and, in general, to MHPSS needs among populations affected by displacement, including through the provision of resources (such as medical supplies and psychotropic medicines) and training by expert medical professionals;
- Support the professional mental health associations and similar entities to improve the standards of care provided through training, capacity building, supervision and providing platforms for the exchange of experiences to benefit from international expertise and standards in MHPSS such as diaspora mobilisation and professional exchange visits;
- Development of assessments and research into the mental health and psychosocial consequences of climate change and extreme weather conditions in Iraq, providing recommendations for risk mitigation.
IOM will address the challenge of water scarcity in the context of climate change to reduce the risk of water issue-induced displacement among populations in Iraq, as this remains high due to the lack of water or bad quality water resources. IOM will:
- Support institutional reform and behaviour changes such as awareness raising and capacity building of communities on water conservation, consumption and reuse;
- Identify critical infrastructure needs and support climate-smart infrastructure technologies, such as water solar pumping, climate-smart irrigation technologies, the reuse of greywater for irrigation, etc;
- Build water resources monitoring and management capacities, such as early warning systems;
- Engage in vocational training and livelihoods opportunities aiming at developing skills of the population in the rural water sector;
- Conduct research to enhance understanding of the impact of water and climate dynamics in governorates affected by water scarcity and adverse climate events and build the capacity of the government in water and climate-related policies.
Contribute to an Evidence Based and Efficient Crisis Response System
IOM will maintain its capacities to collect humanitarian data, track movements of IDPs and other populations of interest, and produce high-quality reports benefitting humanitarian and non-humanitarian actors in Iraq. IOM will also support research and assessments on needs in locations of secondary displacement and informal sites; on climate-induced displacement; and on any other key issues related to displacement and migration in Iraq. Data collected by IOM and related products will improve the capacities of UN agencies, NGOs, clusters, technical working groups and government entities in providing better targeted, evidence-based responses to vulnerable populations in Iraq.
IOM will continue to be one of the main providers of reliable data on displacement and returns, mobility and migration in Iraq. IOM DTM tools and processes allow IOM and partners to track the locations of IDPs and returnees, and assess their living conditions to advance durable solutions efforts in Iraq that will enable displaced populations to voluntarily take the first steps towards return, local integration, or settlement in new locations. In addition, IOM will continue providing the necessary information for emergency, recovery and crisis prevention programming. IOM will:
- Collect data through IOM’s Rapid Assessment and Response Teams (RARTs);
- Disseminate disaggregated information and thematic reports on the number of IDPs and returnees at the governorate, district, subdistrict and location levels, their shelter type, the period of displacement, areas of origin for IDPs, areas of last displacement for returnees, assess their barriers to return, progress towards the integration of IDPs and reintegration of returnees, and give an overview on the severity of conditions in areas of return and displacement, among other, for improved programming;
- Produce data and analytical reports on migration movements with neighbouring countries, focusing, among other, on protection risks and concerns among travellers passing through the monitored border crossing points;
- Produce data and analytical reports to enhance an understanding of the scope and impact of climate change and environmental migration in Iraq, with a particular focus on the water crisis and displacement it causes in Ninewa and southern governorates.
- Produce and disseminate products through the online platform and through sharing with partners, including: IDP and Returnee master lists, providing raw information on displacement; Return Index, providing key information and analysis on conditions of return; IDP index, providing key information and analysis on conditions of displacement; Integration/reintegration survey, providing key information and analysis on progress towards the integration of IDPs and reintegration of returnees across Iraq, using the host community as a benchmark, and measuring displacement-related vulnerabilities across the main durable solution pillars; Flow monitoring, providing key information and analysis of individuals entering or leaving Iraq, immigrants and emigrants; Climate Vulnerability Assessment, providing key information and analysis of the impact on vulnerable communities of climate change and environmental degradation.
- Produce ad hoc Emergency Tracking reports, providing timely data on the number of individuals displaced due to emerging crises such as drought, flood, or other man-made events.
The map used here is for illustration purposes only. Names and boundaries do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.Figures are as of 31 December 2022. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.