In 2020, IOM, in collaboration with its partners and other humanitarian actors, seeks to provide the urgently needed multisectoral humanitarian assistance to conflict-affected populations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) while promoting durable solutions for internally displaced persons (IDPs). IOM will provide multisectoral assistance, particularly in camp coordination and camp management (CCCM), WASH, shelter, NFIs, protection, gender-based violence (GBV) and health services to IDPs residing in sites and host community. IOM will also continue to support the government in responding to the Ebola outbreak and strengthen preparedness for future public health hazards. Considering the many requests for accurate displacement data in the DRC, IOM also aims at expanding the scope of its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) interventions to progressively cover the entire country. Furthermore, IOM will continue to contribute to stabilization, transition and recovery efforts by supporting inclusive and participatory governance processes, promoting rule of law, encouraging economic recovery and strengthening social cohesion.
Vulnerable affected populations and host communities with acute sectoral needs: WASH, Shelter, NFIs, Health and Protection.
In 2020, the Organization aims to continue and strengthen its intervention in camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) to ensure that basic minimum living standards are met within displacement sites, that the provision of humanitarian assistance within the sites is coordinated, that sectoral gaps (WASH, shelter, NFIs, protection, education and health) and protection risks are identified, and that information on the numbers and profiles of IDPs in sites are available, updated and shared with the humanitarian community on a regular basis.
Coordination of activities within the sites also includes monitoring arrivals and departures, site planning activities, reinforcing capacities of IDP committees, site managers and government partners, supporting community-based protection mechanisms and site closing activities when relevant. Teams on the ground will also work to ensure that the provision of humanitarian assistance within the sites is appropriate, coordinated and allows for the engagement and empowerment of IDPs. Camp management teams will work to ensure that protection risks are identified and addressed through mitigation and prevention measures, and necessary referral are made to appropriate actors and services.
IOM aims to continue implementing different components of its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) while expanding the ongoing DTM activities to reach nationwide coverage. The DTM interventions will focus on mobility tracking, registration of IDPs, surveys and assessments including intention surveys for durable solutions and vulnerability assessment, flow monitoring, and emergency tracking. DTM tracks and monitors displacement and movements of populations in IDP sites and host community.
In view of the fact that more than 80% of the displaced population resides within host communities, the data collected through the implementation of the DTM, especially mobility tracking, will provide the humanitarian community with a comprehensive picture on the number, profile and needs of conflict-affected populations. IOM will continue to produce and share maps and profiles of IDP sites. IOM will also expand the use of its Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT) to rapidly collect information on demographic data of the displaced population, areas of origin, locations where they take refuge and humanitarian assistance required following the alert of new displacement. As part of the Ebola Response in the eastern DRC, the DTM team will continue to monitor the movement of populations crossing international borders or crossing Point of Control (POC) through flow monitoring activities.
IOM will conduct regular need assessments to assess shelter and household needs in the coordinated displacement sites and in new spontaneous sites, as well as in host communities. The most vulnerable IDPs in these sites and host communities will be targeted and provided with emergency shelter and NFI kits through various modalities, including in-kind assistance and/or conditional cash.
Context-specific shelter operations in displacement sites, host communities and return areas are essential to support a minimum dignified standard of living, lower the risks of health-related issues, and reduce protection risks including gender-based violence (GBV). In North Kivu, Ituri and Tanganyika, IOM sets up an inclusive approach focused on engaging beneficiaries in order to provide improved context-specific shelter solutions based on people’s needs. With the aim of improving self-recovery and resilience mechanisms of conflict-affected IDPs, IOM works with a group of community members trained in emergency shelter solutions to actively involve affected populations in the response, provide them with the shelter materials and technical guidance on how to construct, repair, and maintain the shelters. The approach and methodology used are coordinated with the Shelter Working Group at the national and provincial levels.
IOM’s WASH interventions aim at improving access to sufficient and safe WASH services for conflict-affected populations, as well as improving hygiene practices in displacement sites, host communities, and return areas in North Kivu, Tanganyika, and Ituri. This is done through the construction and decommissioning of latrines and showers, as well as through the construction and/or rehabilitation of water system networks. WASH facilities are maintained to ensure their viability through IOM’s support to the community-based WASH committees in displacement sites. IOM continuously integrates protection mainstreaming in its WASH interventions in displacement sites and in areas of return to minimize risk and prevent protection concerns. IOM aims to involve IDP committees in the planning and construction of WASH facilities and to maximize the safety, privacy and dignity of women, boys and girls.
Hygiene promotion activities are also conducted in displacement sites across the three provinces and are based on a thorough understanding of hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of IDPs and host communities in order to prevent waterborne diseases and improve the health of target communities.
IOM will provide life-saving primary health care services to conflict-affected populations, including IDPs and host communities. In addition to the provision of direct health services, IOM will also conduct outreach activities in these communities, providing health education on topics such as good hygiene and sanitation practices for disease prevention, as well as promoting "good health-seeking behaviours". Awareness-raising messages will be harmonized with those of the WASH team and the Ebola hygiene promotion activities in order to ensure consistent and effective sensitization efforts for disease prevention and reduction of illnesses. IOM will also rehabilitate damaged or destroyed health facilities in order to ensure that basic functionality will contribute to improving the medical referral mechanisms to ensure that displaced populations and host communities have access to basic health care services. A particular focus will be placed on improving the living conditions in priority health zones affected by the Ebola epidemic and areas hosting the largest number of displaced people.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
Populations displaced by conflict and/or natural hazards and disasters, including IDPs, returnees, and host communities. In addition, IOM works with former combatants to address their needs and support their reintegration and rehabilitation. In doing so, IOM supports related government authorities and institutions.
IOM will continue to provide durable solutions to IDPs and conflict-affected communities through the provision of immediate and longer-term support, in-line with relevant frameworks on displacement, durable solutions and the triple nexus approach in the DRC. IOM will implement interventions in line with its Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations Framework (PRDS) for a broader and more inclusive approach which integrates mobility dimensions towards progressively resolving displacement situations.
Interventions will include the following: (1) protection, safety and security; (2) an adequate standard of living (access to adequate food, water, housing, health services and education); (3) access to sustainable livelihoods; and (4) inclusive governance. IOM will implement community-based quick impact projects (QIPS), transport assistance to IDPs, transitional shelter, and unconditional cash assistance in Tanganyika and North Kivu provinces.
IOM will continue to implement stabilization programmes in Haut-Katanga, Kasai-Oriental, Kasai, Kasai-Central, South Kivu, North Kivu, Ituri and Tanganyika provinces. These programmes will contribute to addressing the root causes of conflict, create the basis for stable State institutions, strengthen the relationship and trust between local authorities and populations, and create the basis for economic recovery. IOM will continue to work in five main areas of intervention: (1) democratic dialogue; (2) restoration of State authority; (3) return, reintegration and socio-economic recovery; and (4) responsible minerals trade. Gender, protection and conflict-sensitivity principles are mainstreamed and integrated throughout the entire project cycle.
IOM aims to contribute to the transition of communities out of conflict by strengthening communities' capacity to promote peaceful resolutions and in responding to the threats that might lead to a relapse of conflict and violence. IOM will assist former combatants and their dependents to return to normal civilian life, notably in the areas of Kasai, Kasai-Central, Tanganyika and Ituri, while providing an important contribution to communities transitioning from conflict to peace and supporting reconciliation efforts at the community level. This will primarily be achieved through public information campaigns, social cohesion activities as well as socio-economic reintegration and early recovery projects.
IOM DRC seeks to expand DTM to the areas of Transition and Recovery Division (TRD) programming. This will include the piloting of a village assessment survey to inform return, reintegration and early socio-economic recovery programming. Further emphasis will be placed on using DTM to conduct return intention surveys to inform durable solutions programming.
IOM will seek to enhance the effective management of the proposed interventions at strategic Point of Entry (POE) or Points of Control (POC) and surrounding health zones, with the involvement of local health officials and communities. This will include a range of trainings and simulation exercises combined with the provision of equipment and supplies, supported by efforts to strengthen data management.
IOM will continue to support the Government in preparing and putting in place measures and strategies ahead of time to mitigate the spread of the Ebola Virus Disease. In partnership with the Congolese Ministry of Health, particularly the National Programme for Border Health (PNHF), IOM will continue to implement preparedness activities at strategic points of entry and points of control (POE/POC), using information on population mobility to minimize disease transmission to new areas and across borders. IOM will assist the Ministry of Health to contain the disease at borders and along main migratory routes.
IOM will seek to support interventions that aim at improving access to sufficient and safe health services for conflict-affected populations and host communities, with special attention to vulnerable cases among migrants (children, pregnant women, elderly and survivors of GBV) in displacement sites, host communities and return areas in North Kivu, Tanganyika, and Ituri. As the Ebola epidemic continues, IOM will assist the Ministry of Health to continue to respond to the outbreak at Points of Entry (POE) and along major migratory routes. In close partnership with the National Programme for Border Health programme (PNHF), IOM will continue to implement disease surveillance and prevention activities at POE and Health Screening Points within and along the borders in North Kivu and Ituri Provinces. The main objective is to contribute to efforts to reach and remain at 0 case of transmissions of EVD through operational capacity building of the Provincial Health Divisions related to active surveillance at POE / POC.
For all regional Ebola-related activities, please see IOM's Ebola Virus Disease - Regional Emergency Health Response Plan 2020-2022.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.