In close collaboration with the Government of Nigeria, partners, communities, and populations of concern, IOM seeks to respond to humanitarian and protection needs of those impacted by the crisis in north-east Nigeria and to support progress towards the achievement of durable solutions.
IDPs, host communities, returnees
IOM's CCCM initiatives will include:
- Providing site facilitation support and site-level coordination in formal and informal camps in Borno and Adamawa states to ensure that IDPs have access to coordinated assistance and services.
- Supporting the decongestion of camps through site development and preparation works, community mobilization, and relocation efforts. Site improvement interventions will consider mitigating measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, such as physical distancing where possible alongside improving access to handwashing facilities and repair of water and sanitation facilities.
- Managing reception centres for new arrivals, ensuring harmonized procedures for newly arrived populations are applied.
- Providing capacity building services for CCCM practitioners, communities, national/local authorities, and other stakeholders.
- Establishing and managing community centres, including by setting up information-sharing mechanisms, complaints and feedback mechanisms, and facilitating speedy reporting of gaps.
- Conducting activities aimed at enhancing the participation of women and girls in activities in IDP sites, including a livelihood project targeting women and girls which is producing face masks for distribution as part of broader COVID-19 preventative measures.
- Identifying durable solutions for IDPs and affected communities, conducting the necessary advocacy activities, tracking standards of humanitarian assistance in camps and camp-like settings against global set standards.
IOM's shelter and NFI initiatives will include:
- Supporting new arrivals in camps through the distribution of Emergency Shelter Kits (in the form of in-kind/ voucher/ cash), construction and maintenance of reception facilities, rehabilitation of damaged buildings for accommodation, and distribution of NFIs at reception centres.
- Contributing to decongestion or re-organization of camps and camp-like settings through the construction of emergency shelters and/or improved emergency shelters with supporting WASH facilities, and distribution of NFI kits to relocated households.
- Supporting transitional shelter solutions by upgrading emergency shelters (in-kind or through cash, including construction skills trainings), constructing transitional mud-brick shelters (through a cash-based modality and including skills training components), and providing improved NFI kits.
- Maintaining shelters in camps through reinforcement of emergency shelters and improved emergency shelters and provision of shelter maintenance materials and tools to camp committees.
- Supporting host community settings (i.e. outside of camps) by providing shelter repair kits and cash grants to returnees with damaged shelters, rent support or rental subsidy (cash), rehabilitation of shelters (cash) and community infrastructure, improved NFI kits (in-kind/ cash/ voucher).
- Supporting the Government for property mapping to address housing, land and property (HLP) issues.
IOM's WASH initiatives will include:
- Providing WASH services in camps, camp-like sites reception/transit centres, and hosting communities around the settlements with limited or no WASH services.
- Maintaining and improving adequate and safe access to potable water, safe, dignified, and adequate excreta disposal mechanisms (e.g. latrines, showers and handwashing stations).
- Ensuring access to sufficient quality personal hygiene items, including menstrual hygiene management (MHM).
- Supporting adequate, dignified, and comprehensible hygiene promotion, including COVID-19 assistance.
- Supporting efforts for cholera outbreak preparedness and response.
- Ensuring solid waste management and environmental sanitation.
- Distributing WASH NFIs.
- Supporting flood mitigation through construction and maintenance of drainage systems.
IOM's MHPSS initiatives will include:
- Providing direct mental health and psychosocial support services to displaced populations and returnees in camps, informal settlements, and communities in the BAY states through MHPSS resource centres/safe spaces and the deployment of dedicated psychosocial mobile teams, referral teams, and psychiatric nurses.
- Strengthening local partnerships with mental health and psychosocial support providers to improve the quality of provision of MHPSS services.
- Providing remote counselling to the distressed population including gender-based violence (GBV) survivors, victims of trafficking, caregivers, vulnerable children, and families.
- Ensuring compliance with MHPSS standards and procedures, coordination of responses, and establish a common understanding among MHPSS response partners on MHPSS concepts, terms, principles, and models of work, community-based approaches, and information-sharing within the MHPSS sub-Working Group.
IOM's health initiatives will include:
- Ensuring a systematic approach to enhancing healthcare provision across BAY states in coordination with the Ministry of Health, Health sector partners and relevant IOM sectors.
- Working with health partners in outbreak prevention, preparedness and response, including immunization; capacity-building of health professionals to contribute to health systems strengthening; health information management; and emergency referral and support systems.
- As part of health promotion and prevention activities, implementing health outreach through community health volunteers and in partnership with local NGOs.
IOM's protection initiatives will include:
- Providing protection and GBV prevention and response services in camps and camp-like settings and host communities across north-east Nigeria through psychosocial mobile teams and safe spaces.
- Mitigating protection/GBV risks through the provision of trainings/capacity building exercises on protection and GBV, safety audits, assessments, ensuring that protection, GBV prevention and response and PSEA are mainstreamed throughout the humanitarian response.
- Providing capacity-building support to government partners, awareness-raising, referrals to specialized services (e.g. education, health, legal etc.) as well as direct assistance (e.g. MHPSS, NFI, shelter) to victims of trafficking in Borno and Adamawa states.
- Conducting capacity building on the prevention and response to GBV, trafficking in persons prevention, response, and community engagement for Government agencies with a focus on Nigerian Police Force, Nigerian Civil Defence Corps, and the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP).
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
IDPs, communities, returnees.
IOM's community stabilization initiatives will include:
- Contributing to the recovery and resilience-building of conflict-affected populations through community stabilization interventions in order to enhance stability and security, restore trust among community members, vulnerable populations, and local authorities, and lay the foundations for durable solutions, lasting peace, and sustainable development. This is achieved through a community-driven and holistic stabilization approach that takes into account the dynamics of conflict and displacement, as well as the need to include marginalised groups at every step in the stabilization processes. Communities are supported with the restoration of basic rights and the inclusive access to and the provision of essential services, as well as rehabilitation and reconstruction of community infrastructure, and inclusive economic recovery and livelihoods activities.
- Deploying the Transhumance Tracking Tool (TTT) along transhumance campaign corridors in the Middle Belt to provide data on transhumance movements and routes, and to anticipate (i.e. act as an early warning system) areas where clashes may occur between nomadic transhumant herders, and sedentary farmers and herders. Based on the potential clash points identified through the TTT, IOM mobilises key actors in those communities to come together and pre-emptively agree on solutions that would allow for the peaceful passage of the transhumant herders through the community, as well as enhancement of community social cohesion. This can include demarcation of transhumance passage corridors, or augmentation of water points, or community infrastructure, to reduce the risk that transhumant herds will need to pass through uncollected crops, potentially leading to local conflict. In support of, and to further legitimize peaceful mediation processes, IOM then supports local committees and authorities in the implementation of the solutions identified to both enhance the legitimacy of peaceful negotiation processes and ensure peaceful passage of the season’s transhumance campaign.
IOM's peacebuilding and peace preservation initiatives will include:
- Working closely with communities across Borno and Adamawa states to establish community dialogue platforms and extend support to communities of the North Central and North West Nigeria. These platforms are composed of traditional leaders as well as other key representatives of the community.
- Training platform members on various skills that enable them to promote peaceful coexistence in their communities and mobilise the population towards reconciliation, social cohesion, peaceful reintegration, peaceful conflict resolution, and prevention of violent extremism.
- Holding regular platform meetings with community members during which key issues that are affecting them are discussed.
- Selecting and implementing community impact projects likely to contribute to social cohesion and peace.
- Supporting the prevention of violent extremism (PVE) and reconciliation efforts at national, state, and local levels to mitigate further negative migration pressures resulting from violence and instability.
IOM's durable solutions initiatives will include:
- Employing a Stability Index in order to better operationalise the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, and gauge appropriate humanitarian and recovery efforts needed in areas of return. The Stability Index assesses the stability of areas witnessing IDP returns across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states in north-east Nigeria. Findings through the Stability Index will support government and partners’ development of strategies, and resource and operations planning linking humanitarian, recovery and stabilization approaches in areas of high return.
- Facilitating community mobilisation to create community platforms in the areas of return identified as stable to engage local authorities and community leaders from the communities who have stayed behind, IDP returnee communities and IDPs engaging youth, women and civil society organisations representing all three community groups as much as possible. In following IOM’s community stabilization methodology, these fora serve as participatory mechanisms through which the communities identify priorities for their joint recovery and transition out of crisis. Initiatives will likely include humanitarian interventions to ensure returnees have access to safe shelter and basic necessities as well as long-term structural rehabilitation contributing to the attainment of durable solutions and to a reduction of forced migration drivers.
- Supporting local authorities in crisis-affected areas of return in the north-east to restore community access to public services through the rehabilitation of prioritized community facilities.
- Implementing income-generating activities to enable self-reliance and improve the livelihood situation of returnees and host communities.
IOM's mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) initiatives designed to facilitate dialogue and reinforce social cohesion towards recovery and crisis prevention include:
- Supporting IDPs, returnees, and communities to regain a sense of safety and human security, increase self-confidence and community trust, strengthen social networks, develop coping mechanisms, and regain hope for the future.
- Identifying in each site/location, groups and individuals with vulnerabilities to create an individualized plan for them. (This will not include survivors of GBV, as IOM does not actively seek out or identify them because of the risks involved in exposure).
- Providing social support (e.g. peer support and mentoring actions) to strengthen relationships and the sense of solidarity among members of a community.
- Increasing access to social capital through social networks that provide social and emotional support. This will be measured by an increase in indicators of social cohesion, such as the amount of social capital a community has, as well as shared group resources, such as a friend-of-a-friend’s knowledge of a job opening.
- Promoting human capabilities to improve human functioning, recovery, and resuming life projects. Through the integration of MHPSS training/educational modules into livelihood projects, this approach will focus on the needs of individuals, their resources, and their diverse abilities.
IOM's housing, land and property rights (HLP) initiatives aim at:
- Contributing to the objectives of reconciliation, peacebuilding, and reconstruction efforts through interventions that promote and restore HLP rights.
- Providing support in strengthening the security of tenure by ensuring adequate property mapping to help address HLP issues, compliance with due diligence procedures in the identification of landlords and tenants, and documentation of tenancy arrangements for beneficiaries of the cash-for-rent and shelter rehabilitation programme, together with the support of LGA administration and traditional leaders. The CCCM/Shelter & NFI Sector will monitor and address issues to ensure that the terms and conditions of the agreement are duly understood, signed, and complied with by all parties.
- Working with LGA, National and State Emergency Management Agency (NEMA/SEMA) and the CCCM/Shelter & NFI Sector to ensure that due diligence on land tenure is carried out and that disputes are referred to and addressed by legitimate parties.
- Ensuring that proper site assessments and planning are undertaken in conjunction with negotiating access to land with the support of NEMA/SEMA sector partners and LGAs.
IOM's WASH initiatives in transitional and post-crisis situations will include:
- Providing sustainable access to water and sanitation services through the support of improved water and sanitation infrastructure, management mechanisms, and governance systems that enable beneficiary communities to respond to their needs and endure future shocks in affected communities, public facilities (e.g. schools, health facilities, etc.) and/or transitional areas. The provision of improved water and sanitation infrastructure and services, coupled with behavioural change seeking hygiene promotion, preserves public health, thereby positively impacting positively long-term health and nutrition outcomes.
- Identifying and implementing community-based WASH solutions.
- Strengthening local governance of WASH services through capacity building of national/local authorities and stakeholders.
IOM's national laboratory systems initiatives will include:
- Supporting health clinic infrastructure and capacity to contribute to the government’s effort to respond to COVID-19 in coordination with the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Federal Ministry of Health and related departments, WHO and the UN Medical Services.
- Supporting the provision of COVID-19 testing services in Borno, FCT (Abuja) and Lagos. Activities include sample collection and testing for UN staff, staff of international organizations (INGOs), the diplomatic community and migrants, using existing IOM facilities.
IDPs, communities, returnees.
IOM's WASH initiatives designed to contribute to preparedness and risk reduction will include:
- Establishing, training, and equipping WASH committees to comply with daily care and maintenance of WASH facilities.
- Promoting proper maintenance and usage of sanitation facilities at key locations.
- Providing safe and equitable access to water for affected populations through drilling/construction of new water systems, including boreholes, care, maintenance, rehabilitation, and upgrading of existing water systems.
- Providing sustained environmental sanitation services (e.g. solid waste management).
- Distributing WASH NFIs, including hygiene, cholera, menstrual hygiene management and COVID-19-kits complemented by cash modalities where feasible, and fit-for-purpose Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials on the correct use of items.
IOM's initiatives designed to strengthen systems for mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) will include:
- Providing capacity building to the Ministry of Health and MHPSS partners by ensuring information-sharing, adherence to relevant standards and guidelines, and the efficient use of resources among partners.
- Enhancing the collaboration built with the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Borno and the State Specialist Hospital in Adamawa for the provision of specialized services.
- Rolling out the training curriculum developed with the University of Maiduguri on psychosocial counselling and small-scale conflict resolution to localize the MHPSS response and ensure sustainability.
IOM's initiatives at points of entry (POEs) will include:
- Strengthening the preparedness of prioritized POEs including land borders in collaboration with WHO and the Federal Ministry of Health.
- Supporting with the provision of health screenings, including temperature checks and questionnaires.
- Sensitizing travellers through risk communication on epidemic-prone diseases.
- Enhancing the capacity of officials at entry points to prevent, detect, report, and manage the transmission of infectious diseases at and across borders.
Humanitarian responders, development partners.
IOM's displacement tracking initiatives will include:
- Ensuring information management mechanisms for displaced populations to facilitate planning, gap analysis, and rapid response in north-east Nigeria through Displacement Tracking Matrix, Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT), and Baseline Assessments.
- Conducting return assessments to provide a better understanding of characteristics and the numbers of returnees in specific areas to create an internal ward ranking of returns.
- Implementing village assessment surveys (VAS) to support dignified and effective programming and adapted planning, coordination, and targeting of transition and recovery activities in identified returnee areas.
- Conducting Stability Index surveys to identify “pockets of stability” and enable partners to better develop strategies and plan resources and operations in vulnerable areas for coherent interventions that link humanitarian, recovery, and community stabilization components.
- Deploying biometric registration activities to both IDP and return locations to facilitate livelihood partners’ beneficiary targeting activities, linking emergency response to early recovery, and ensuring continuous support through cash, voucher, and in-kind based interventions in the locations identified as "pockets of stability".
- Collecting data on transhumance and agro-pastoral conflicts through IOM’s Transhumance Tracking Tool in order to reduce tensions linked to resources management and conflict surrounding transhumance campaigns in the East, Adamawa, and North regions.
- Contributing to pursuing a sub-regional strategy of harmonization of its methodologies, calendars, and products across the Lack Chad Basin countries. These activities will support the creation of a sub-regional DTM able to provide better cross-country analysis and information to national and sub-regional authorities.
- Conducting mobility tracking activities in the North West and North Central regions affected by floods and community clashes to provide humanitarian, development, and peacebuilding actors with up-to-date information and gaps of the displaced population.
IOM's initiatives to support the humanitarian community in north-east Nigeria to respond to the needs of the crisis-affected population will include:
- Ensuring maintenance and operation of nine humanitarian hubs, located in Maiduguri (base camp), Gwoza, Bama, Ngala, Dikwa, Monguno, Banki (2), and Damasak.These hubs provide secure and safe operating environments for partners in Maiduguri and deep field locations across north-east Nigeria, including accommodation, office space, meeting/training facilities and connectivity services in collaboration with the Emergency Telecommunication Sector (ETS).
IOM's initiatives to support COVID-19 response actors in north-east Nigeria will include:
- Operating the isolation centre and COVID-19 laboratory for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for humanitarian workers in north-east Nigeria in partnership with the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH).
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.