IOM, together with key stakeholders, including governmental and non-governmental actors, is committed to addressing immediate and long-term migration-related challenges in Haiti by enhancing the capacity of national institutions to better manage human mobility, ensuring robust and coherent engagement across the humanitarian-development-peace nexus. IOM seeks to address humanitarian needs, as well as the root causes of irregular migration and internal displacement, contribute to reducing forced movement and the vulnerability of crisis affected and at-risk populations, strengthen resilience to identified risks, and mainstream migration into the development agenda through policy and legislation in line with the Global Compact on Migration and the Los Angeles Declaration on Migration and Protection.
(1) Newly and protracted IDPs and those at risk of protracted displacement; (2) IDPs affected by natural hazards; (3) Vulnerable host communities in areas of displacement and communities of return where services are inadequate or overstretched; (4) IDP returnees, facing severe conditions or affected by the growing gang activity of urban areas of Haiti; (5) Vulnerable migrants in need of humanitarian assistance and access to basic services (health, psychological support, etc.) and (6) Technical support to CCCM and SNFI Sector partners and training of first responders and WASH committees.
As co-lead of the Shelter and NFI sector along with the the UCLBP and the DGPC, IOM will support the reconstruction and rehabilitation of homes and buildings in areas affected by earthquakes and will pre-position items in advance of natural hazard events. IOM will also provide support, through in-kind and cash-based modalities, depending on the context and assessments by IOM, to those who have been displaced due to the growing insecurity and gang violence in the capital of Port-au- Prince. Activities include:
- Provision of shelter materials and essential household items (NFIs) including ﬁxing kits, kitchen sets, jerry cans, tarpaulins, blankets, and solar lamps to IDPs affected by gang violence and in natural hazard-affected areas (earthquakes, ﬂoods, etc.). Supporting the roll- out of structural evaluations and the support to the reconstruction and rehabilitation of evacuation shelters (hospitals, schools) in collaboration with the GoH;
- Strengthening of the S-NFI Sector Coordination and information management and enhancement of the support to sector partners, ensuring an effective and coordinated response, both in serving beneﬁciaries and providing technical support to partner organizations;
- Conduct of rapid on-site training to facilitate safe and durable beneﬁciary community led-reconstruction techniques;
- Strengthening the capacity of Local Emergency Operation Cells (COULs, as per the French acronym) in the Sud, Grand'Anse and Nord-Est departments, especially communal sections, by organizing trainings on on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and PSE,; and Simulation Exercises (Simex).
- Continuing and expanding on an analysis on the capacity and needs of families to host IDPs in Sud-Est and Grand-Anse departments carried out under a previous projects to explore replicability in other Haitian departments;
- Maintenance and strengthening of the NFI Common Pipeline to support the capacities of the GoH and the humanitarian community in the timely delivery of life-saving commodities and supplies to the affected people;
- Supporting relocation and assisting displaced households to access durable solutions, including relocation, ensuring the process is informed and voluntary. This can be done by providing ﬁnancial support for rental payments Improvement of IDPs sites.
- Rehabilitation of evacuation shelters such as schools and hospitals according to the Sphere standards.
IOM will provide life-saving primary health services, referral and health facility support, complementing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), in the most vulnerable areas such as border areas, informal displacement sites, and in areas of return. Activities will include:
IOM will provide MHPSS services to migrants in the context of displacement and return. IOM plans to expand MHPSS assistance especially to displacement sites in hard-to-reach areas through an implementing partner. All MHPSS activities will be in line with IOM's Manual on Community- Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement and the IASC Guidelines for MHPSS in Emergencies. Interventions will include:
- Facilitating referrals and access to existing MHPSS services for returning migrants, internally displaced persons following gang-clashes in Port-au-Prince and those affected by natural hazards;
- Promoting IOM's 8840 hotline, which is operated by MHPSS assistants , providing Psychological First Aid (PFA), remote counseling and referrals to specialized MHPSS services;
- Providing community and family supports such as socio-relational, creative and arts-based, and sports and play activities as well as focused MHPSS services (individual and group counseling);
- Organizing referrals to specialized mental health care for people with severe mental health conditions;
- Training and equipping MHPSS staff, including those operating the IOM’s 8840 hotline, to be able to safely and ethically respond to potential GBV cases and make necessary referrals to appropriate available services;
- Training of ﬁrst responders in basic psychosocial including communication skills, Psychological First Aid (PFA) and stress management.
IOM will provide in-kind and cash assistance to the most vulnerable migrants and displaced people, including sick or injured individuals, people with disabilities, older persons, children, unaccompanied and separated children (UASC), pregnant women, as well as to survivors of GBV and VoTs after risk assessment, as part of IOM’s comprehensive protection assistance. Initiatives will include:
- Providing post-arrival protection assistance and reintegration support for repatriated migrants ;
- Multipurpose cash assistance to cover immediate protection needs of repatriated migrants;
- Providing specialized case management services at individual and household levels, including management and referral of special cases such as survivors of GBV, VoTs, and people in need of MHPSS;
- Providing training on the detection of cases of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) to affected populations;
- Conducting awareness-raising activities on SEA and reporting mechanisms with the affected populations;
- Ensuring a robust approach to prevent and respond to SEA, including the implementation of an IOM action plan on PSEA, the reinforcement of the capacity of relevant actors to address and manage such cases and the provision of the IOM hotline 8840;
- Raising awareness on traﬃcking in persons in the humanitarian context among at-risk communities and frontline service providers;
- Enhancing the coordination among stakeholders to promote and ensure the respect and fulﬁllment of human rights and mainstream protection, for example via the Migrants’ Protection Working Group, the Cluster Protection, participation in the CCCM Cluster, and the Counter-trafficking cell, which was created jointly with the Government;
- Ensuring that protection is mainstreamed in all of IOM’s interventions through training of staff on protection principles and the Institutional Framework for Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Crises (GBViC) (risk identiﬁcation and mitigation), adapting interventions’ designs to better include the needs of vulnerable groups and mitigate the barriers and risks they face in accessing services;
- Building institutional and community capacity for the establishment of complaint mechanisms and ensuring the AAP; and Co-leading the Migrant Protection Working Group, within the Protection Sector.
As co-lead of the CCCM working group along with the UCLBP, IOM aims to provide eﬃcient and timely support to the Government of Haiti in the coordination and management of IDP sites resulting from the ongoing gang clashes in the MAPAP and in the greater south due to the 2021 earthquake. Currently IOM is providing services at 12 IDP sites in the MAPAP. As of August 2023, there are 75 informal sites, including collective centers, in the MAPAP. Speciﬁcally, IOM will:
- Manage IDP sites, either directly by IOM through mobile site management teams or through implementing partners;
- Ensure the meaningful participation and representation of displaced communities through the support and set up of committees and groups, ensuring the representation of women, persons with disabilities, youth, etc;
- Build capacity of CCCM implementing partners, including on PSEA, and provision of trainings for site committees on site management;
- Provide access to information and feedback mechanism channels in camps and camp-like settings;
- Ensure a safe and digniﬁed physical environment through site maintenance and improvement activities including nature based solutions and site upgrading activities that consider environmental impact and the consequences of elevated hazard risk and exposure;
- Support to IDPs in host communities, including via a Community Resource and Information Center (CRC) which provides information and assistance to displaced persons living in host communities;
- Enable all vulnerable people in targeted sites to beneﬁt from protection services, depending on their speciﬁc needs, such as access to basic services, psychosocial support and orientation and referral services to support reintegration into their neighborhood of origin; and
- Lead coordination of working group and provide updated site information to partners via the working group on a regular basis.
IOM will assist returnees, including repatriated migrants with movement assistance, so they can reach their localities of origin. Due to the security situation Assisted Voluntary Return to Haiti is currently suspended.
- Provide movement assistance through various means of transportation to Haitians repatriated to reach their localities of origin in a dignified manner.
IOM will provide WASH services in the most vulnerable displacement sites. Activities will include:
- Working on the rehabilitation or enhancement of water points and/or distribution pipelines approved by the National Directorate of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DINEPA);
- Establishing WASH committees to ensure ongoing operation and management of the infrastructure and to support community ownership and sustainability;
- Providing training to WASH committees in IDPs sites and ensuring regular monitoring and provision of technical guidance;
- Monitoring the water quality using bacteriological kits to test for Escherichia coli (E.coli) as recommended by the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality; and
- Conducting hygiene promotion activities, distributing Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) kits, and hygiene kits containing soap, shampoo, toothpaste, water purifying tablets, and hydroalcoholic gel among others, for families most in need;
- Rehabilitating sanitation facilities in IDP sites (latrines, showers, dislodging), as well as waste management and vector control;
- Implementing cash for work activities for drainage cleaning;
- Installing and operating solar powered water supply systems; and
- Water trucking as a measure of last resort to ensure the continuous availability of water for newly displaced populations.
IOM will provide emergency assistance to returnees repatriated to Haiti by air, land, and sea, as well as to the most vulnerable people affected by gang violence and natural hazards. Activities will include:
- Providing emergency assistance to individuals affected by gang violence and natural hazards through cash-based interventions to improve their basic needs integrated into various areas of IOM programming, such as CCCM, S-NFI, and protection and
- Providing food and water, medical and psychosocial assistance, and transport assistance in cash to Haitian returnees repatriated by air and land or intercepted at sea.
Address the drivers and longer-term impacts of crises and displacement, supporting durable solutions and investing in crisis prevention
1) Protracted IDPs requiring better/increased support for a safe and sustainable voluntary return; (2) deportees and communities in areas of return in need of basic services, livelihoods, safety and security; and (3) government authorities, civil society organizations and NGOs requiring capacity building and greater stability for the resumption of services.
IOM seeks to support governments, States and communities undergoing signiﬁcant socioeconomic and political changes during and following a crisis, to (re)establish stability, prevent further forced migration and displacement, restore trust among community members, vulnerable populations and local authorities and lay the foundations for durable solutions, lasting peace and sustainable development. IOM supports the return of state actors in terms of strengthening local services and reinforcing local leadership, particularly in areas that host IDPs or to which IDPs or migrants return to. In 2023, the activities include the following:
- Supporting relevant public institutions through measures to improve the community’s resilience to absorb shocks and capacitating state and local governance;
- Strengthening of inclusive dialogue and decision-making mechanisms at the local level;
- Promoting inclusive access to, and the provision of, essential services to Haitians living in conﬂict-affected areas;
- Rehabilitating public infrastructure in coordination with the authorities, e.g. rehabilitation of water points, cleaning of public spaces; and
- Improving equal access to economic opportunities at community level and provision of trainings on livelihoods, e.g. sustainable agriculture.
IOM will support durable solutions for migrants and IDPs in line with IOM’s Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework, IOM's durable solution programming includes:
- Analyzing the displacement situation and the wider mobility context;
- Identifying key economic sectors (e.g. agriculture, textile, ﬁsheries) in migration-prone areas for the development and implementation of short-term training programs and income-generating activities that prevent vulnerable groups to resort to migration as a coping strategy, while promoting the preservation of the environment;
- Promoting the engagement of the private sector in activities aiming at creating durable solutions for vulnerable IDPs through the establishment of cash-for- training/cash-for-work programs;
- Promoting the local economic development, and the livelihood of young entrepreneurs through the provision of technical skills, tools, and ﬁnancial management training;
- Strengthening the partnership with the private sector to promote the inclusion of vulnerable Haitians in the economic market;
- Recycling and introduction of environmentally friendly building materials;
- Supporting sustainable returns of migrants to communities of origin and “green reintegration”;
- Ensuring legal and physical access of displaced populations to local economic opportunities, enabling self-reliance and reducing dependency.
IOM will support (1) the Government of Haiti, including national and local authorities; and (2) community leaders to better equip them to deal with disaster management to reduce risks facing Haiti. In addition, IOM will also support (3) Government and (4) non-governmental actors in their efforts to include and mainstream risk reduction and preparedness; and (5) communities living in disaster prone areas.
IOM’s preparedness activities aim to build the capacities and improve the ability of key stakeholders (e.g. State actors, emergency response organizations, communities, and individuals) to anticipate and effectively respond to the impact of likely, imminent, or current hazards, events, or conditions in Haiti. A large part of the preparedness effort consists in pre-positioning of contingency stocks across the country to ensure timely and at-scale response in case of sudden onsets disasters. Other ongoing initiatives to support the most vulnerable regarding emergency preparedness include:
- Building community’s capacity in the maintenance of emergency alert and early warning systems, including the management of evacuation shelters (see also evacuation shelters under objective 1);
- Creating a network of DRR promoters and organizing training in DRR, first aid and PSEA. These DRR agents will be able to carry out an awareness campaign throughout the cyclone season;
- Organizing a mass awareness campaign in public places, especially in at-risk departments such as: Sud, Grand'Anse and Nord ‘Est to draw the population's attention to the protective measures to be taken in the event of disasters;
- Capacitating government stakeholders on Mass Evacuations, including trainings on Evacuation Shelter Management (GAP) and the enhancement of coordination of DGPC Technical Group on Evacuation and Shelter Management Committee (CTEGAP in French acronym).
- Reinforcing the capacity of the DGPC to prepare and respond to a crisis through capacity-building activities on inventory, management and distribution of NFIs and warehouses at the level of departments;
- Strengthening surveillance and reporting of infections during disease outbreaks, such as the Cholera 2022 outbreak
- Pre-positioning of NFI contingency stock across the seven IOM warehouses;
- Providing training and guidance to staff at national entities such as the UCLBP, the DGPC, and the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communications (MTPTC) in how to best coordinate an adequate response to disasters related to natural hazards such as through the yearly SIMEX (simulation exercise) to strengthen their life-saving capacities.
- Prepositioning of lifesaving and humanitarian relief goods in strategic, disaster-prone areas, which are ready for deployment at the time of disasters, including key shelter, hygiene and NFI materials;
- Supporting government to assess and establish strengths, procedures, and operational gaps in humanitarian border management, to improve preparedness for migration crises and ensure migrants traveling out of/and returning to Haiti are appropriately protected.
IOM’s ongoing initiatives to support the most vulnerable to avoid existing and new disaster risks include:
- Developing early warning mechanisms and risk information systems with the authorities in consultation with affected populations and considering the needs of the most vulnerable;
- Conducting technically informed “Build Back Safer” (BBS) communications campaigns to increase awareness of and encourage safer construction techniques, through highly visual, engaging, and culturally relevant messaging;
- Providing trainings on improved local techniques (TCLA as per the French acronym) and construction of resilient housing;
- Contributing to improved understanding and awareness of local communities and authorities on climate risks, including their interrelations with conflict and other causes that influence their vulnerabilities.
Ongoing activities to strengthen MHPSS systems include:
- Improving access to mental health services through the establishment of SOPs for mental health cases and clear referral pathways to specialized care;
- Strengthening the capacity of civil society and government partners in the field of MHPSS on psychological first aid (PFA) and basic MHPSS skills, as well as referral systems.
IOM's DTM data will benefit (1) relevant governmental authorities; (2) UN agencies; and (3) partners in the field, by providing information on the most vulnerable members of target Haitian communities, including INGOs, local NGOs, CSOs and so on.
In a context of high political instability, increasing social and economic insecurity, and frequent natural hazards, IOM aims to support the Government of Haiti in monitoring the movements, numbers, proﬁles, needs, and trends of forcibly displaced populations, forcibly repatriated migrants, and other populations on the move, so as to inform policies and programs which address the needs of vulnerable migrants. In order to do so, IOM will continue to:
- Install Flow Monitoring (FM) methodology at oﬃcial and unoﬃcial points of entry (PoE) which has repatriated a growing number of Haitian migrants, in order to monitor and comprehend mobility types, ﬂows, and trends between the two countries;
- Monitor mobility trends and assess the multi-sectoral needs of displaced populations by regularly deploying the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) existing network, tools, and methodologies to highlight urgent needs and priority sectors of intervention and ensure evidence-based, tailored, and adapted humanitarian response;
- Develop, reﬁne and adapt post-disaster needs assessment tools, in close collaboration with government and humanitarian partners in order to inform disaster related emergency response;
- Conduct thematic needs assessments in coordination with related clusters/sectors, especially with the protection cluster in order to inform protection response to displaced population and migrations;
- Train and strengthen the capacities of governmental partners, such as the DGPC, ONM, and INS in information management to support a collaborative, concerted data management process, ensuring the sustainability of DTM methodologies and activities; and
- Conduct in-depth research studies to garner a comprehensive understanding of migration drivers, migrant proﬁles, needs, and vulnerabilities, in order to inform strong and evidence-based migration policy making.
The map used here is for illustration purposes only. Names and boundaries do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.Figures are as of 31 December 2022. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.