Ethiopia Crisis Response Plan 2024

Last updated: February 27 2024
Funding required
People in need
People Targeted

IOM Vision

IOM Ethiopia focuses on supporting crisis-affected populations, including vulnerable migrants and returnees, in addressing immediate humanitarian needs, while undertaking longer-term actions to build resilience and foster sustainable peace and development.

Key Operating Modalities
Participation and empowerment Conflict sensitivity Integrated Programming Collaboration and partnership Localization Cash-based interventions
Cross-cutting priorities
Data and evidence Protection Mainstreaming Gender Equality Prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse Disaster Risk Climate Change Law and policy

Objective 1 - Saving lives and protecting people on the move
Saving lives and protecting people on the move

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM seeks to provide humanitarian assistance to displacement-affected people, including IDPs and host communities. People targeted include refugees assisted with relocation assistance. Through the ES/NFI and CCCM Clusters, IOM also continues to support cluster partners (international and national NGOs (I/NNGOs), other UN agencies, and national and regional government authorities). In addition, IOM aims to support vulnerable migrant returnees to Ethiopia, including through food, WASH, NFIs, health/nutrition, health, MHPSS and protection support. Individualized protection services, establishing and supporting community protection mechanisms, improving affected people’s access to services and protection mainstreaming are some of the planned interventions.

IOM’s Data and Research Unit through its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) provides the GoE, humanitarian and development partners, as well as donors and other relevant stakeholders with a reliable and useful evidence base for planning, advocacy, and response. Since its launch in September 2016 in Ethiopia, the DTM has grown to be a fully integrated component of Ethiopia’s national and sub-national information management architecture. It is the only official source of data on internal displacement in the country, the primary source of data used by the humanitarian community to inform the Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO)/HRP, and is also used to inform durable solutions work, among others.

IOM also supports governments, response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to strengthen disaster preparedness.

Basic needs, including food and multi-purpose cash assistance

To cover crisis-affected populations’ basic needs such as food, shelter, and WASH, as well as transportation costs, IOM will provide:  

  • Multi-purpose cash assistance (MPCA) in line with Cash Working Group recommendations.  Considering that IDPs are on the move and that needs of affected people are diverse, unconditional cash assistance enables beneficiaries to prioritize their most pressing needs in a dignified manner. IOM implements MPCA programming directly and through Rapid Response Fund (RRF) by sub-granting to international and national NGOs. 
  • Life-saving assistance (food, NFIs, temporary accommodation, primary and secondary health care, psychosocial support etc.) to migrants in need identified in the Migration Response Centres (MRCs) and Transit Centres (TCs). Migrants also receive protection screening and referral and capacity-building support. 
Funding required
Plan types

Camp coordination and camp management

IOM supports CCCM along four pillars of response through: 

  • Support to camp coordination, camp management and information management in both ‘camps and camp-like settings’ and ‘out of camp areas’ through the area-based approach in conflict and disaster-affected areas. 
  • Conduct of site planning, development, maintenance, and upgrading of communal structures or infrastructure ensuring access for people with physical disabilities. 
  • Establishment of community representative structures for IDPs and strengthening community participation through risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) and CFMs; and
  • Capacity-strengthening of CCCM partners and government authorities on core CCCM concepts and practices.

IOM implements CCCM programming directly and through RRF sub-granting to international and national NGOs.

Funding required
Plan types

Direct health support

In order to support health outcomes, IOM plans to:

  • Deliver comprehensive lifesaving primary health care (PHC) and nutrition services, integrating MHPSS and gender-based violence (GBV) risk mitigation for vulnerable populations (including returnee migrants) in priority areas.
  • Support government health facilities by deploying mobile health and nutrition teams. 
  • Provide vaccinations and nutrition screening, including the management of malnutrition, health promotion, and education at the facility and community levels.
  • Provide comprehensive reproductive health care services to women in the reproductive age group including antenatal, delivery, family planning services, and postnatal care and referrals.
Funding required
Plan types

Humanitarian border management and services for citizens abroad

To support the Government of Ethiopia in strengthening humanitarian border management to establish adequate response mechanisms to protect Ethiopians and foreign nationals crossing the border during crises involving large inbound or outbound migration movements, IOM will:

  • Support operationalizing Art.16 of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, specifically the operationalization of the SOPs on admission and stay for people displaced across borders in disaster situations. 
  • Support respective administrative entities in developing crisis simulations, inter-agency contingency planning, training and capacity-building on HBM. Target entities are border management agencies such as border guards and police, immigration, customs, and health officials, supported by non-law enforcement institutions and entities, including but not limited to civil protection, child protection and family services, and by extension, their referral services.
  • Support the installation and use of mobile border management information systems for the registration, collection and analysis of data on migration movements, particularly before, during, and after crisis.
Funding required
Plan types

Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian response

IOM provides comprehensive, integrated, and community-based MHPSS services that promote resilience, mental health, and overall well-being of crisis-affected populations, including returning migrants at transit centres or MRCs. In 2024, IOM will:

  • Deploy psychosocial mobile teams (PMTs) to mobile and static locations for direct service provision. 
  • Provide direct services via PMTs, including individual and group counselling, peer group discussions, psychological first aid (PFA), psychoeducation, awareness sessions, referral to specialized mental health services, and socio-relational and recreational activities (such as sport and play, creative and art-based activities, or cultural activities) to re-build the supportive social network of the affected population. 
  • Activities are aligned with the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) pyramid of intervention, covering all four levels, as well as IOM’s Manual on Community-based MHPSS in Emergencies and Displacement.
Funding required
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies

IOM will implement WASH activities targeting IDP sites and returning migrants at PoEs and in migrant reception facilities, including the provision of WASH services and rehabilitation of existing infrastructure. IOM will:  

  • Provide safe water through emergency water trucking where appropriate or through pipeline connections to existing water schemes.
  • Rehabilitate existing water supply schemes or construct environment-friendly new water systems including gender-sensitive and disability-friendly sanitation facilities complemented with solid waste management. IOM will also conduct water quality monitoring at the source and points of use.
  • Establish and strengthen the capacity of water management committees.
  • Conduct hygiene promotion, risk communication and awareness campaigns through community volunteers using varying methods including but not limited to door-to-door, group counselling, and mass campaigns.
  • Preposition and distribute WASH-related essential non-food items including initial hygiene kits, menstrual hygiene management kits, and water treatment chemicals, and promote hygiene awareness among displacement-affected populations and host communities.  

IOM implements WASH programming directly and through RRF sub-granting to international and national NGOs.

Funding required
Plan types

Shelter and settlements

To support the shelter, settlements and non-food item needs of affected populations, IOM will: 

  • Provide in-kind emergency shelter, essential non-food household items, cash-for-rent, repair and maintenance of household and emergency communal shelters for displacement-affected populations, returnees, drought-impacted households and host communities. 
  • Support durable solution initiatives by providing longer-lasting housing solutions to displacement-affected communities (returned, relocated, or locally integrated) through the provision of housing, land and property (HLP) support, housing repairs, spatial planning, community-based planning, and capacity-building initiatives.
  • In areas where markets have been impacted by crises, pilot market fairs with vouchers or cash for NFIs. 
  • Implement shelter programming directly and through RRF sub-granting to international and national NGOs. The RRF maintains an ES/NFI pipeline to support Cluster partners to rapidly respond to urgent needs. 
  • As ES/NFI Cluster coordinator, strengthen Cluster coordination, and continue to provide strategic and technical guidance and support to Cluster partners.
  • Provide shelter and safe accommodation to returnee migrants who arrive in Ethiopia with no resources and often travel under harsh conditions, including through equipping MRCs and transit facilities at PoEs. Special measures will be put in place to ensure tailored assistance to UASCs and women and girls who are most vulnerable.
Funding required
Plan types


IOM adheres to a risk-reduction approach to protection and delivers inter-related and mutually supporting protection interventions. In 2024, IOM will:  

  • Through a case management approach, address the needs of populations facing protection violations and risks, with a focus on women and girls, and persons with specific needs (older persons and persons with disabilities, among others).  
  • Strengthen the capacities and knowledge of the rights of impacted groups and communities, with interventions aimed at supporting community-based protection mechanisms and reducing barriers to services, through a Do No Harm approach.  
  • Mainstream protection (including GBV risk mitigation, disability inclusion, and prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse) through all interventions by capacitating frontline staff in identifying protection and GBV risks and addressing them accordingly, responding to disclosures of protection and GBV incidents and devising sector-specific risk mitigation measures.
  • Through the implementation of the national IDP proclamation (currently under development), together with government and non-government actors, support the protection of IDPs, including their right to access social services, documentation, protection and assistance.  
  • In close coordination and partnership with government and non-government partners, and in accordance with the Best Interest Procedure, assist unaccompanied and separated migrant children through family tracing and reunification. In line with the national “Directive on Alternative Childcare and Support” and the “Alternative childcare guidelines on community-based childcare, reunification and reintegration program, foster care, adoption and institutional care service”, IOM will facilitate the provision of alternative care options for children who cannot return or unite with their family through referral to specialized child protection governmental institutions and partner non-governmental organizations.
  • To strengthen the general and specialized protection responses to vulnerable returning migrants at border crossing points, provide multi-sectoral basic protection assistance including shelter, NFIs, WASH, MPCT, transportation assistance, basic medical assistance and MHPSS support, both in IOM-run MRCs and partners’ rehabilitation centres, and through referrals to government service providers.
Funding required
Plan types

Movement assistance

In coordination with UNHCR, the GoE’s Refugees and Returnee Service (RRS), the GoE’s Immigration and Citizen Services (ICS), and other partners, IOM will provide emergency movement assistance to refugees, migrants affected by regional crises and to third-country nationals (TCN's). IOM assistance will include: 

  • Provide emergency movement assistance by land in a timely, safe, voluntary, and dignified manner from conflict-affected locations and points of entry (PoEs) to designated camps in Ethiopia, between camps or to areas of origin.  
  • Assist TCN's through Voluntary Humanitarian Return including movement assistance to transit accommodation before being supported with movement support to their home country inclusive of transit assistance where needed.  
  • As part of the movement continuum, conduct protection screening to identify vulnerable caseloads and pre-departure health checks will be conducted prior to the movement to ensure identified health and protection needs can be accounted for and referred. Experienced medical and operations staff are deployed in operational areas to ensure beneficiaries’ safety and dignity. 
  • Assistance includes the provision of medical escorts with significant medical conditions during travel and the provision of operations escorts by IOM in need of additional support, as well as care and supervision during transportation.  

An effective feedback mechanism is in place to ensure that beneficiaries receive adequate and timely information about access to travel and movement assistance and to ensure that any issues encountered along the movement assistance can be reported back to IOM.

Funding required
Plan types

Displacement tracking

IOM’s DTM regularly and systematically monitors human mobility within Ethiopia to provide insight into the location, vulnerabilities, demographic breakdown and needs of displaced and mobile populations to enable accountable, evidence-based responses by IOM and other humanitarian and development partners. DTM’s data collection activities will include:

  • Quarterly Site Assessment (SA) and Village Assessment Survey (VAS) to assess the multi-sectoral needs of IDPs and returning IDPs, as well as the absorption capacity of return communities.
  • Weekly Event Tracking Tool capturing sudden population movements to ensure partners have up-to-date information to respond between regular rounds of the SA and VAS.
  • Household Level Surveys and deeper research of mobility trends and recurrent displacement to delve deeper into thematic concerns such as drought, durable solutions, and returns. Flow Monitoring to capture inter- and intra-regional migration flows daily at key identified transit locations to inform development programming, including migrant assistance and protection programming.
  • Provide technical capacity building on DTM tools and data protection for the government and partners to improve data management and technical capacity. 
  • Establish Transhumance Tracking within primarily pastoralist communities within the country to assess the impacts of climate change on traditional livelihoods and coping mechanisms, as well as inform early warning systems.
Funding required
Plan types

Support services for response actors

IOM will focus on enhancing the capacities of local actors and government entities to respond to migration management challenges on the Eastern Route through: 

  • Capacity development, including training and operational support to local NGOs and other responders.
  • Advocacy to support relevant government structures, including the National Referral Mechanism and the National Partnership Coalition, which are government-led platforms designed to, respectively, ensure efficient and timely referrals to specialized support and to gather all relevant migration stakeholders. The MRP will be further strengthened as a coordination platform for advocacy, resource mobilization, and coordination of activities for all government, non-government, and UN actors working on migration. The UN Migration Network will also be convened to coordinate among UN agencies.
  • Coordination among partners, including with donors and the Ethiopian government for an increased understanding and investment in migration management and assistance to migrants. 
  • Equipment and infrastructure enhancements after conducting an organizational capacity assessment for the regional partnership coalitions on migration in regions in Ethiopia.
Funding required
Plan types

Emergency preparedness

IOM supports governments, response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to better anticipate, respond to and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent or current disasters. IOM will:

  • Conduct research, hazard mapping, and multi-hazard risk assessments, including historical displacement trend mapping to inform future programming and identify areas of cyclical displacements.
  • Engage community members, local leaders, and relevant stakeholders in a participatory approach to identify and assess local hazards, vulnerabilities, and capacities, with a focus on technology access and literacy. 
  • Strengthen the capacity of the government on early action strategies, protection measures, and policy development
  • Provide training and resources to empower community members on risk assessment, disaster preparedness, and the use of technology for early warning.
  • Preposition NFI kits in line with the SNFI Cluster’s 2024 Humanitarian Response Plan.
Funding required
Plan types
Thousands of people have arrived in Ethiopia through the border town of Metema due to the Sudan Crisis.  © IOM Ethiopia 2023 / Kaye Viray
Thousands of people have arrived in Ethiopia through the border town of Metema due to the Sudan Crisis. © IOM Ethiopia 2023 / Kaye Viray

Objective 2 - Driving solutions to displacement
Driving solutions to displacement

Funding required
People Targeted
Entities Targeted
Former combatant / fighter, Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM supports progress towards durable solutions in line with the S.G. Action Agenda on Internal Displacement, focusing on IDPs in protracted displacement and returning IDPs, contributing to wider efforts to promote sustainable peace and development. IOM collaborates with community actors, such as women's peace committees as agents of change and marginalized groups, as well as relevant governmental and non-governmental stakeholders to promote inclusive peace-building processes and strengthen the institutional capacity of local actors. IOM partners with government health and MHPSS facilities to strengthen resilient health systems and contribute to recovery. Furthermore, IOM targets government health and MHPSS actors, contributing to the surveillance and management of outbreaks and strengthening MHPSS capacity as part of a unified health and mobility management approach. IOM also works closely with affected communities to build long-term resilience focusing on the WASH sector, focusing mainly on returnees and host communities affected by conflicts in the North and Southern parts of Ethiopia, as well as drought-affected communities. 

Target beneficiaries also include departing migrants, returning migrants and affected host communities. The response will emphasize resilience-based support at the individual and community-based levels. Returning migrants often arrive in their countries and communities of origin in a vulnerable state, face stigmatization and struggle to access services and reintegrate sustainably. The likelihood of re-migration remains high, especially when a return to conflict-affected regions is not possible. Relevant governments and local partners will also be supported to enhance migration management through a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach.

In addition, IOM supports local government structures and communities affected by displacement or at risk of displacement due to natural hazards in its disaster risk reduction work. 

Community stabilization

IOM supports climate and conflict-affected communities across Ethiopia to re-establish social, economic and governance structures. IOM will:

  • Implement inclusive governance dialogues and capacity strengthening to ensure community-driven solutions and recovery through the community-based planning (CBP) approach. The CBP approach allows communities to address their self-identified, multi-sectoral recovery priorities, including for example the rehabilitation of community infrastructures, such as WASH infrastructure, schools or health posts, as well as livelihoods, natural resource management or social cohesion efforts.
Funding required
Plan types

Health system strengthening

IOM Ethiopia continues to support the recovery and strengthening of resilient health systems with the aim to move from the direct provision of essential services to more comprehensive health services through bolstered national capacity. IOM support includes:

  • Capacity-building for government health workers and partners.
  • Procurement and donation of essential medicines and supplies.
  • Rehabilitation or construction of damaged health facilities, particularly in conflict-affected areas.

IOM also continues to support the Government of Ethiopia to strengthen health system preparedness, detection and response capacities, in particular relating to disease surveillance at borders and in communities, outbreak case management and RCCE. Activities will include: 

  • Active participation in the preparedness and response of national technical working groups, such as for cholera, measles and malaria. 
  • Support for the response to emerging illnesses such as dengue fever, typhus fever, COVID-19/SARS, influenza, West Nile virus, and haemorrhagic fevers.
Funding required
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Livelihoods and economic recovery

IOM supports livelihood restoration and strengthening to improve the socioeconomic conditions of displacement-affected communities, mitigate negative coping mechanisms and reduce inter-communal tensions, thereby establishing the foundations for sustainable economic recovery and poverty reduction. IOM will:

  • Scale up support to sustainable livelihoods through on-farm interventions, such as crop production, livestock promotion, horticulture, beekeeping, poultry, etc.
  • Scale up off-farm interventions, including entrepreneurship, business and enterprise development, skills and vocational training, access to finance and job creation, etc. 
  • Focus on adaptation of livelihoods to the effects of climate change.

IOM will particularly focus on the socioeconomic empowerment of marginalized groups such as women and youth.

Funding required
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Mental health and psychosocial support in transition and recovery

IOM provides MHPSS at the individual, family, and community levels, contributing to wider efforts to mend social fabrics and strengthen social cohesion. Supported community engagement activities will include:

  • Socio-relational and recreational activities and soft skill-building activities.
  • MHPSS services in schools, peer-support group activities, and non-formal education.
  • Celebration of holidays, rituals and other relevant events, such as World Mental Health Day in order to raise awareness of MHPSS. 

In addition, to strengthen systems for mental health and psychosocial support in Ethiopia, IOM will:

  • Support capacity-strengthening for government workers and partners on the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (MhGAP) and other priority topics.
  • Deploy community workers to support MHPSS activities.
  • Rehabilitate or construct one-stop centres where MHPSS services will be available.
  • Procure psychotropics for government facilities and PSS materials and supplies.
Funding required
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Peacebuilding and peace preservation

Given the fragility of state and community structures, IOM supports national processes to promote peace and reconciliation and the building of an inclusive peace infrastructure and dispute resolution mechanisms. IOM will:

  • Work closely with the Ministry of Peace at the federal level and with the Security and Admin Bureaus at the regional levels to support the development of national and regional peacebuilding strategies, including on the mitigation of hate speech.
  • Support institutional capacity-building on conflict prevention, including conflict early warning systems, as well as customary and local conflict resolution mechanisms.
  • Facilitate intra- and inter-community dialogues for IDPs and host communities and among different ethnic and clan groups to enhance social cohesion and trust.
  • Strengthen coordination mechanisms between formal judiciary systems and informal/local customary justice systems by organizing consultative workshops to share roles in the implementation of decisions passed by both formal and informal institutions.
  • Support informal peace structures such as local peace committees and elder/traditional leaders councils to promote indigenous knowledge for conflict resolutions.
  • Promote interactive socio-cultural events and sporting activities to foster social cohesion among various ethnic groups, including marginalized community members such as youth and women.
  • Support women and youth to enhance their capacity for dialogue, mediation and conflict resolution mechanisms. For example, women peace ambassadors will be trained and linked with traditional leaders to involve them in conflict resolutions and peace processes in their community.
  • Examine land and property restitution as well as the rehabilitation and reconstruction of damaged infrastructure as part of a broader reconciliation process. 
  • Support detailed assessments to ascertain needs, evaluate the cost of rehabilitations, and engage communities and local authorities through dialogues and capacity-building.
Funding required
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Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations

In response to the drought situation in southern Ethiopia and to support returnees in post-crisis contexts to recover, IOM will implement durable WASH solutions, mainly in northern regions of Ethiopia and Somali region, and will: 

  • Rehabilitate large- and small-scale non-functional water schemes or the drilling of new boreholes, including electrification or solarization of water schemes for more efficiency and cost-effectiveness. This also contributes to reducing emissions and thereby climate impacts. 
  • Support local Water Management Committees and local WASH experts to strengthen governance for WASH infrastructure and improve operations and maintenance for newly installed or rehabilitated infrastructure.  
  • Conduct hygiene and health promotion activities, in coordination with the health team, to contain the spread of water-borne diseases.
  • Provide in-kind or cash assistance to enable returnees to obtain materials for the construction of household latrines. 
  • Support and expand WASH basic services for basic community institutions such as schools and Health facilities.
  • Work with municipal institutions to roll out and implement community-based WASH solutions such as community-led total sanitation (CLTS) combined with sanitation marketing schemes, village savings and loan schemes.

IOM implements WASH programming directly and through RRF sub-granting to international and national NGOs.

In areas prone to flooding and drought, IOM through RRF sub-granting to national NGOs, will work with local communities to: 

  • Map risk areas and support community-based planning to improve community preparedness. 
  • Support communities to work to identify potential problems and then reinforce water and sanitation systems to withstand known hazards in the community. 
  • Invest in climate-resilient WASH infrastructures.
Funding required
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Transitional justice

IOM will work closely with key government and non-government actors to support the ongoing national dialogue and consultation to set up a Transitional Justice mechanism in Ethiopia. In 2024, Ethiopia is planning to develop a draft victim-centred Transitional Justice policy, which aims to address the grievances and needs of affected populations through a people-centred, rights-focused approach. IOM will identify potential areas for collaboration in this process, including supporting affected populations' access to information, legal services and claims. In 2024, IOM interventions will include:  

  • Conduct field surveys, consultations, and technical assessments. 
  • Advise on institutional design, and capacity building for implementing partners.
  • Develop SOPs and guidelines, provide IT support, etc.
  • Provide technical support to the government and local and international stakeholders, including assisting in the development of a victim-centred Transitional Justice policy.
Funding required
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Adaptation and disaster risk reduction

IOM works to prevent, avert and address displacement related to natural hazards and climate change through improved disaster risk management, focusing on high-risk communities that are vulnerable to specific types of disasters and have limited access to early warning systems. IOM will:

  • Support establishing and strengthening early warning systems linked to the Early Warnings for All Initiative of which Ethiopia is a first-round cohort country.
  • Support the standardization of operational guidelines on disaster risk reduction (DRR).
  • Facilitate the development of community-specific disaster risk reduction plans that incorporate the use of technology for early warning and response.
  • Assist communities in integrating low-cost technology solutions into their disaster risk reduction plans including the installation/improvement of early warning devices, the development of community apps for disseminating alerts, and the establishment of communication networks.
  • Establish community-based disaster risk management committees, including early warning systems, and dialogue initiatives on mobility, risks, and resilience.
  • Strengthen the capacity of the government on risk-informed policies and strategies, protection measures, and policy development.
Funding required
Plan types
Operational presence in


International staff and affiliated work force
National staff and affiliated work force
IOM field office

The map used here is for illustration purposes only. Names and boundaries do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.

Figures are as of 31 December 2023. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.