Migrant Response Plan for the Horn of Africa and Yemen 2021

Regional Plan
Last updated: July 30 2021
$57,751,981
Funding required
613,667
People in need
327,428
People Targeted

IOM Vision

The Migrant Response Plan for the Horn of Africa and Yemen includes urgent life-saving humanitarian and protection interventions to improve access to basic services for migrants and host communities in a safe and dignified manner, while ensuring medium- to long-term actions aimed at addressing the drivers of migration. The MRP is an inter-agency strategy developed by IOM in coordination with 38 regional and country non-governmental and intergovernmental partners, providing an essential strategic framework to ensure a whole of society approach to address the needs of vulnerable migrants and host communities in the key countries along the Eastern and Horn of Africa (EHOA) and Yemen route and ensure continuity of services along the route. While the overall implementation of the plan is led by the government and supported by the United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other partners, IOM leads the coordination efforts for the implementation of the plan, including information management, planning, monitoring and reporting at the regional and country levels.

IOM will support governments and other partners through strengthening their capacities and those of local institutions for better migration management and providing sustainable socioeconomic infrastructure to support communities of origin, transit and destination.


Objective
Save lives and respond to needs through humanitarian assistance and protection

$39,520,381
Funding required
207,385
People Targeted
20
Entities Targeted
International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted
  • Migrants transiting through Djibouti/Somalia/Yemen: on their way to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Returnees in Ethiopia and Somalia after being either forcibly returned from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, or having decided to return spontaneously from Yemen, Djibouti or Somalia.
  • Settled migrants: Migrants from Ethiopia and/or Somalia that have established themselves in one of the transiting countries and have no short-term intention to continue their migration towards the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Migrants in destination: Migrants from Ethiopia and/or Somalia that are currently in Yemen, either stranded or temporarily settled.
  • Host communities and returnees that live in the same areas where returnees and migrants have established themselves and areas where migrants are transiting.

Basic needs, including food

Migrants in the eastern route often face status-based discrimination and stigmatization as potential COVID-19 carriers. This results in reduced or denial of access to essential services such as primary health care, food, or shelter assistance at various points throughout their journey, with limited support from local communities. In the MRP-targeted countries (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen), IOM will provide basic services to vulnerable migrants, including stranded migrants, accompanied and unaccompanied children, GBV survivors, and victims of trafficking, along the Eastern Route and returnees from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. IOM will work closely with Migration Response Centres (MRC), Migrant Response Points (MRP), mobile health clinics and host communities in providing services to migrants including:

  • Assisting the target population with food and/or nutrition assistance, and non-food items.
  • Providing the target population in Ethiopia and Yemen with multi-purpose cash assistance.
Funding required
$3,100,995
Plan types

Protection

Throughout their journey, migrants face extreme protection risks, including violence, trafficking, abduction, torture, forced labour, physical violence, exploitation, detention and gender-based violence (GBV). Human rights abuses, including physical and psychological abuse, xenophobia and stigmatization of migrants have been on the increase, and protection concerns such as increased incidents of GBV, human trafficking, family separation, and safety and dignity concerns for migrant women and girls are further compounded. In order to address the increasing protection needs, IOM will seek to contribute to the upholding of migrant rights and strengthen the capacity of governments and partners to provide protection assistance and services to migrants and vulnerable populations through the following activities:

  • Training government officials, frontline actors and partners on counter-trafficking and/or smuggling of migrants, and GBV prevention and response, and identification of special needs and referral mechanisms for vulnerable migrant protection and human rights.
  • Establishing, strengthening, and managing way stations and child protection desks located along migration routes.
  • Strengthen data collection and analysis on protection needs and risks including through protection monitoring, participatory assessments, surveys/research in order to inform programming, policy and advocacy efforts.
  • Strengthening child protection processes/safeguards and provide specialized child protection services to migrant children including unaccompanied minors and separated children and other vulnerable children in line with established standards. Services include but are not limited to family tracing and reunification, assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR), mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), and medical assistance.
  • Preventing and responding to human rights violations perpetrated against migrants including human trafficking and smuggling of migrants through law and policy development, capacity building, advocacy, provision of assistance and services to victims (medical, legal, psychosocial support and safe shelter, among others).
 
Funding required
$3,881,000
Plan types

Movement assistance

The pandemic prompted governments in the Horn of Africa and the Gulf states to impose stringent border closures, increase movement restrictions and tighten security along known migratory routes. This had a significant impact on migrants and communities in the region with regards to their mobility, as some of them are now stranded in transit countries without being able to continue their journey or return to their country of origin. In order to enable migrants stranded in vulnerable situations in Yemen, Djibouti and Somalia to reach their communities of origin safely, IOM will undertake activities including:

  • Assisting vulnerable and stranded migrants with medical assistance, treatment, referrals to specialized care for the migrants needing this type of assistance, medical escorts for migrants with chronic illnesses as well as awareness raising on Infection Prevention Control of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases at all stages of the journey. The movements will be done by road and air transport depending on the country of departure.
  • Post arrival assistance, including food, temporary accommodation, post-arrival health screening and assistance, onward transportation assistance (OTA), NFIs, medical support (in-house and through referrals), MHPSS, and advocacy with governments on the issuance/replacement of identity documents.
Funding required
$3,860,000
Plan types

Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian response

Many migrants suffer from mild to severe psychosocial trauma as they experienced physical abuse, sleep deprivation, illegal detention, forced labour and theft. Improved access to Psychological First Aid and Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) services could be a relevant factor of resilience and recovery for vulnerable migrants who show negative psychological reactions including disorientation, sense of instability, lack of trust, isolation, anger and aggressive behaviours. In 2021, IOM will provide MHPSS to strengthen the protection environment for migrants and affected communities. All the MHPSS activities will be in line with the IOM Manual on Community-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement. Key activities will include:

  • Training officials/actors on MHPSS.
  • Assisting people with MHPSS and life skills training.
  • Conducting training of trainers (ToTs) for migrants on peer counselling and information sharing.
Funding required
$3,325,847
Plan types

Health support

The pandemic has resulted in disruptions in key health services for the treatment of other communicable and non-communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, as well as preventative services such as routine immunizations and reproductive health for women. In addition, measures imposed by countries led to a large number of migrants requiring referral to COVID-19 testing and treatment facilities, as well as support with quarantine measures. Given the already overstretched national health systems, the required resources significantly exceeded the existing capacity in the affected countries and risked draining resources further. Therefore, IOM will provide life-saving primary health services, and supports the strengthening of referrals to specialized health services. Key activities under this activity area will include:

  • Providing vulnerable migrants with medical screening, emergency health support, and referrals for primary and secondary healthcare, including specialist clinics or services such as cardiology, physiotherapy, vaccination, Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, non-communicable diseases, etc.
  • Supporting the government and other relevant stakeholders with COVID-19 related assistance, including capacity building and implementation of Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE), Infection Prevention and Control (IPC), support for isolation/quarantine, procurement of equipment, etc.
Funding required
$18,816,019
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies

Access to water, basic sanitation and improved hygiene conditions in households, community kitchens, border crossings, collective and individual shelter solutions, and health centers are amongst the most crucial needs of migrants as well as of the affected host communities in targeted countries; and these needs have become further exacerbated as a result of the dramatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. IOM will respond to immediate and medium-term water, sanitation and hygiene needs of migrants and host communities to save lives and uphold their dignity. The intervention is planned at both the household and institutional levels as people will be assisted with WASH items, services and infrastructure, and all activities will follow country guidelines on COVID-19 preventive measures, such as physical distancing. Specifically, the action will seek to:

  • Provide access to/increase quantity and quality of safe water.
  • Implement/improve/rehabilitate sanitation services (e.g. excreta management, solid waste management).
  • Establish and strengthen Operation and Maintenance (O&M) activities for the sustainability of the services.
  • Support hygiene promotion through awareness campaigns and distribution of hygiene kits inclusive of Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) items.
Funding required
$3,263,000
Plan types

Shelter, settlements and non-food items

Access to shelter for migrants has become more critical since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some temporary shelters and Migrant Response Centres were forced to close their doors to new entries during the pandemic to ensure sufficient space for physical distancing, while others suspended operations entirely due to the lack of Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures in place. Those shelters that remained open reduced their capacity significantly. Adding to these challenges, movements across the region are expected to continue in 2021, putting increased pressure on limited capacity in shelters solutions. In 2021, IOM’s focus will be:

  • Providing shelter assistance to migrants in transit and destination countries. This includes shelter kits or alternative solutions such as referrals to temporary partner-run shelters.
  • Establishing, strengthening and managing Migrant Response Centres in targeted countries.
  • Distributing of Non-Food Items (NFIs) to stranded migrants as well as the most vulnerable populations in host communities. NFIs will be context-based, based on the needs of the stranded migrants, as well as the context in which the stranded migrants find themselves.
Funding required
$3,273,520
Plan types
Awareness Raising for Transit Migrants in Obock, Djibouti. Photo Credit Alexander Bee 2020.
Awareness Raising for Transit Migrants in Obock, Djibouti. Photo Credit Alexander Bee 2020.

Objective
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention

$14,045,000
Funding required
131,303
People Targeted
25
Entities Targeted
International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted
  • Migrants transiting through Djibouti/Somalia/Yemen: on their way to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Returnees in Ethiopia and Somalia after being either forcibly returned from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, or have decided to return spontaneously from Yemen, Djibouti or Somalia.
  • Settled migrants: Migrants from Ethiopia and/or Somalia that have established themselves in one of the transiting countries and have no short-term intention to continue their migration towards the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Migrants in destination: Migrants from Ethiopia and/or Somalia that are currently in Yemen, either stranded or temporarily settled.
  • Host communities and returnees that live in the same areas where returnees and migrants have established themselves and areas where migrants are transiting.
  • Government authorities, civil society, and NGOs.

Community stabilization

The drivers for irregular migration continue to be primarily economic, resulting from an absence of stable income-generating options for households. Areas of outward migration are often marked by communities with weak social cohesion, poor service delivery, and weak governance. Stranded migrants and returnees are in particular need of more sustainable solutions to mitigate the risk of unsafe and irregular migration or further marginalization. IOM will therefore focus on providing access to services to support progress towards solutions, including services to promote community stabilization. The community stabilization activities will seek to assist governments, civil society and affected communities to reduce the drivers of forced and irregular migration through:

  • Establishing/strengthening community initiatives that foster stability and resiliency through equitable access to quality essential services, livelihoods, inclusive decision making, social cohesion activities, and other initiatives addressing the negative drivers of migration, serving returnees and host communities in countries of origin.
  • Establishing/strengthening community-based protection structures and social policies that support vulnerable and returnee migrants, including children and those at risk.
  • Delivering tailored and sustainable reintegration assistance (including through cash-based initiatives (CBI)) and economic empowerment opportunities such as livelihoods, training, and education, among others.
Funding required
$14,045,000
Plan types

Objective
Contribute to an Evidence Based and Efficient Crisis Response System

$4,186,600
Funding required
140
People Targeted
30
Entities Targeted
International migrant, Local population / community
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

To support a better understanding and more efficient response to migration crises, IOM will strengthen the evidence base for both policy influence and reform, and programming through individual and joint needs assessments and analysis tailored to different
populations and contexts. The evidence base will target relevant government departments such as National Information Management Systems, partners and officials who will use the data to better predict, understand, and analyze the drivers of migration and enhance the use of evidence for policy formulation and programme design, inform protection advocacy and programming at both the country and regional levels.

Displacement tracking

The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) monitors migrant movements and is used to capture, process and disseminate information regularly and systematically to provide a better understanding of these movements and evolving needs of mobility flows in places of transit or destination. These activities will include:

  • Developing and disseminating flow monitoring reports and needs assessments.
  • Integrating mobility data with health surveillance efforts to inform programming and responses to public health emergencies.
  • Providing data to inform protection advocacy and programming at country and regional levels, and cross analyze data with other migrant service provision (such as MRC registration and service data) to identify possible stranded caseloads, migration protection needs, vulnerabilities and design referral pathways at the local level.
Funding required
$1,157,600
Plan types

Support services for response actors

IOM will enhance the effectiveness and coordination of humanitarian assistance, protection, sustainable and development-oriented solutions through the collection, provision, and dissemination of evidence-based information on mobility movements and needs. Key activities include:

  • Strengthening coordination with regional and sub-regional mechanisms on policy coherence and evidence-based programmes in support of migrants and sending and host communities.
  • Strengthening engagement with government and partners through existing coordination mechanisms and ensure that protection issues related to migrants are discussed and addressed.
  • Supporting regional or bilateral government dialogue initiatives in support of research studies as well as policy or advocacy documents.
Funding required
$3,029,000
Plan types
Operational presence in

Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen

 

Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.

With thanks to our current donors