Sudan Crisis Response Plan 2021

Last updated: March 23 2021
$123,500,000
Funding required
13,400,000
People in need
2,550,050
People Targeted

IOM Vision

IOM Sudan plans to adopt an integrated approach to Sudan’s migration and crisis response challenges and support the Government of Sudan in both demonstrating the principles and achieving the objectives of good migration governance including managing mobility dimensions of crises.


Objective
Save lives and respond to needs through humanitarian assistance and protection

$52,000,000
Funding required
800,000
People Targeted
100
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM foresees humanitarian support will be needed for the following population groups:

  1. Newly displaced IDPs, refugees and populations affected by man-made or natural disasters.
  2. IDPs, refugees, and returnees in protracted displacement that continue to suffer from poor living conditions and lack of support and are facing challenging conditions such as limited access to basic services and livelihood opportunities.
  3. Vulnerable host communities in areas of displacement and return where services are overstretched.
  4. Internal and international migrants in need of direct assistance or movement assistance.

Camp coordination and camp management

People Targeted: Indirect beneficiaries 350,000 vulnerable people in camp and camp-like settings.

Entities Targeted: 75 UN agencies and INGOs/NGO to coordinate assistance, services and protection activities in camps and camp-like settings.

IOM will ensure a harmonised national approach to support and assist IDPs through IOM Sudan’s role as co-lead on the COVID-19 IDP Camp Coordination Taskforce in coordination with UNHCR. Activities will include:

  • Provide up-to-date information on IDP sites to humanitarian partners, map services to better understand needs and gaps, and build synergies and avoid duplication to ensure effective multi-sectorial coordination of COVID-19 preparedness and response in IDP camps and settlements across Sudan.
  • Provide training on COVID-19 mitigation measures including physical distancing, proper hygiene practices, infection prevention and control measures, and community surveillance of health risks to reduce the spread of the virus and outbreaks of other diseases.
  • Facilitate referral pathways for critical needs and essential services are provided including WASH, ES/NFI, protection, health and MHPSS.
  • Coordinate with staff and protection sector partners dealing with gender-based violence (GBV) cases to ensure GBV referral pathways are up to date, staff are trained on them and on how to support in case of GBV disclosure.
  • Support community-based mobilization and capacity-building for care and maintenance of site infrastructure; and site improvements projects, build on community-led planning processes, and coordination and service monitoring in hosting sites.
Funding required
$1,000,000
Plan types

Health support

People Targeted: 150,000 IDPs, refugees, returnees, and other vulnerable crisis-affected communities.

Entities Targeted: Ministry of Health

To reduce mortality, morbidity and alleviate the suffering of crisis-affected individuals and host populations, by ensuring access to and availability of lifesaving health care, IOM will:

  • Rehabilitate primary healthcare facilities (PHC) and provide mobile clinic services to support inpatient and outpatient care.
  • Provide operational support for the target health facilities to deliver the minimum basic package of primary health care services (BPPHS) including treatment of acute and chronic communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Provide essential maternal and child care including child vaccination services, and screening, diagnosis, and management of malnutrition focusing on the specific needs of children under the age of five (U5) and pregnant and lactating women (PLW).
  • Facilitate referrals for specialised medical assistance to secondary and tertiary facilities for continuity of care. 
  • Providing capacity building trainings and refresher courses for health care providers and community health workers to support community-led initiatives for health promotion including awareness campaigns on public health risks, infection prevention and control, reproductive health, infant and young child feeding practices, community management of acute malnutrition.
  • Support communities to establish event-based surveillance through community health workers and volunteers to track new health risks, or close monitoring of existing health risks and transmit the information to local authorities.
  • Providing supplies and training on waste management and vector control to health facilities and communities to improve environmental health.
Funding required
$8,000,000
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies

People Targeted: 450,000 IDPs, refugees, and returnees and other vulnerable crisis-affected communities.

Entities Targeted: Ministry of Irrigation and Water, Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES).

Life-saving assistance will be provided to people newly displaced by conflict or natural disasters in an effort to recreate pre-emergency conditions using early recovery approaches to improve the overall access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. IOM will:

  • In coordination with groups mainly responsible for collecting/fetching water considering their accessibility to these water points, safety concerns and risks, identify locations and drill new boreholes, extend water networks, install/rehabilitate hand pumps, emergency bladders, and water yards and provide sustainable and environmentally friendly power sources such as solar technology to operate the water points. Provide water trucking in emergencies in absence of water sources.
  • Chlorinate water points and implement water quality control activities to improve access to safe water sources and increase quantity to SPHERE standards of 7.5 -15 litres per person per day (l/p/d). Distribute water purification tabs and water filters for vulnerable households and chlorine to technicians for water sources.
  • Preposition spare parts, and tools for maintenance and rehabilitation of WASH facilities.
  • Construct additional gender, age, and disability sensitive latrines, and rehabilitate and maintain sanitation facilities to prevent groundwater contamination and improve hygienic practices during emergencies.
  • Launch hygiene campaigns through risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) to raise awareness of improved hygiene practices in coordination with the local authorities and communities inclusive of people with specific needs (PWSN) and underrepresented groups; and conduct knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) survey information on behaviour changes involving hygiene practices.  
  • Support the communities to develop infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, solid waste management protocols such as garbage collection to prevent environmental pollution.  
  • Provide WASH items including soap, jerrycans and hygiene kits (including menstrual hygiene management (MHM) items).
  • Train both female and male community members as technicians to operate and maintain water points and provide chlorination, based on water quality monitoring outputs, for water sources including correct handling and usage of chlorine with personal protective equipment (PPE).
  • Establish waste and water management committees to collect tariffs from community members to maintain facilities and develop contingency plans, including Operation and Maintenance (O&M) guidelines in line with similarly successful mechanisms set up in various localities.
Funding required
$24,000,000
Plan types

Shelter, settlements and non-food items

People Targeted: 350,000 IDPs, refugees, returnees, and other vulnerable crisis-affected local communities.

Entities Targeted: Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) and National NGOs.

Shelter and non-food items (NFI) interventions will be used to improve living conditions for vulnerable populations, targeting camps and communities with high rates of displacement or contributing to the safe return or relocation of vulnerable groups. Activities will include:

  • Use information provided through Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) and conduct shelter surveys and needs assessments to identify and prioritise the most vulnerable households and individuals including people with specific needs, including women, children, the elderly, and disabled and provide assistance in line with their needs.
  • Procure, preposition, and distribute: (i) non-food items kits; (ii) environmentally friendly materials for locally acceptable improved emergency shelters kits and in line with cluster/sector standards; (iii) Shelter repair kits; (iii) locally sourced and environmentally friendly materials for the construction of transitional/permanent shelters, which are culturally acceptable and appropriate for the climate.
  • Provide training on assembly and maintenance techniques for emergency shelters and construction guidance for transitional/permanent shelters targeting beneficiaries and local partners, ensuring that structures are well assembled/constructed. 
  • Conduct disaster risk reduction (DRR) sessions for vulnerable households to support better preparedness and prevention of man-made and natural hazards (especially flood and fire hazards) that may affect shelters.
Funding required
$19,000,000
Plan types
Migrant Resource and Response Centre (MRRC) staff providing essential food distribution to vulnerable migrants during COVID-19 lockdown. 15 June 2020 - Khartoum, Sudan. Photo Credit: Lisa George
Migrant Resource and Response Centre (MRRC) staff providing essential food distribution to vulnerable migrants during COVID-19 lockdown. 15 June 2020 - Khartoum, Sudan. Photo Credit: Lisa George

Objective
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention

$39,000,000
Funding required
350,000
People Targeted
23
Entities Targeted
Former combatant / fighter, Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM foresees recovery, transition, and durable solution support will be needed for the following population groups:

  1. IDPs at high risk of protracted displacement and who continue to suffer from poor living conditions and lack of support.
  2. IDPs, refugees and returnees and other vulnerable internal migrants facing challenging conditions such as residual insecurity, damage to properties and public infrastructure, limited access to basic services and livelihood opportunities and fractured social relations.
  3. Underserved host communities in areas of displacement and return where services are overstretched or lacking and inter/intra-tribal conflict persist.
  4. Stakeholders (government counterparts, CSOs, CBOs) in need of training to better assist and provide services to communities. 

Peacebuilding and peace preservation

People Targeted: 60,000 people from pastoralist or sedentary communities along migratory routes; home and host communities with inter and intra tribal disputes; and former combatants/ fighters.

Entities Targeted: Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission (SDDRC), CSOs and CBOs.

IOM will promote social cohesion and address root causes of tensions in conflict-prone communities by improving conflict resolution, addressing the need for immediate security and longer-term recovery and positive coping strategies, and providing peace dividends to increase access to basic services and livelihoods.  Activities will include:

  • Foster dialogue facilitating regulated access to pastures and resolve land issues by enhancing traditional conflict resolution mechanisms and capacity building for local rural courts/institutions.
  • Increase water access and provide basic infrastructure targeting communities along migration corridors as part of conflict mitigation measures or peace dividends.
  • Develop integrated water resource management systems to promote the coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources, in order to maximise socio-economic gains without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
  • Support reconciliation at the national and community level and contribute to restoring trust and mitigate future violent conflict.
  • Build the capacity of local authorities’ responsiveness to the challenges of Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and work with CBOs and CSOs to understand barriers to reintegration.
  • Identify initiatives in coordination with the SDDRC and provide ex-combatants in need with: (i) Information Counselling and Referral Services (ICRS) support for mental health; (ii) sustainable reintegration grants of ex-combatants for socio-economic activities and other essential basic services; (iii) community initiatives to contribute to post-conflict recovery and build the conditions necessary for sustainable peace and reintegration of ex-combatants.
  • Increase community capacities to engage local actors in peacebuilding activities including supporting community-based interventions to promote social cohesion, the peace process and political transition.
Funding required
$8,000,000
Plan types

Durable solutions

People Targeted: 50,000 IDPs, returnees, refugees and home and host community members.

Entities Targeted: NGOs, CSOs, CBOs

Progression towards durable solutions will be supported by using IOM’s Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations Framework, which is in line with the IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for IDPs, to gradually resolve protracted displacement in complex crisis situations. IOM Sudan aims to strengthen the capacity of individuals, households, and communities to better prevent, absorb and recover positively and effectively to future risks by contributing towards rapid recovery and self-reliance and promoting local integration and (re)integration in safer and more secure living conditions with better access to resources and opportunities by:

  • Supporting community-led workshops and initiatives including water, waste, resource management and security committees who will be responsible for developing community action plans to address drivers of displacement and barriers to durable solutions for future initiatives and contribute to the selection of the activities to be implemented in areas of intervention.
  •  Constructing/rehabilitating basic infrastructure and facilities that increase access to an adequate standard of living, access to adequate water, health services and education.
  •  Build capacity for local institutions and communities to support the provision, maintenance and sustainability of basic services, safety, and security, such as training water technicians, health workers and teachers in coordination with the relevant ministries.
  • Providing sustainable livelihoods and employment, to support the sustainable resolution of vulnerabilities that occur during displacement, by distributing income-generating assets and facilitating market-oriented vocational and livelihood training based on community-identified priorities, available value chains and in coordination with participating local institutions.
Funding required
$15,000,000
Plan types

Community stabilization

People Targeted: 40,000 IDPs, refugees, returnees and home and host communities with a special focus on underrepresented groups such as women and youth.

Entities Targeted: NGOS, CSOs, CBOs.

Community stabilisation programming aims to prevent, mitigate, and reduce the drivers and negative effects of forced displacement and irregular migration related to natural and/or human-made crises.

This includes access to the provision of essential services, the promotion of social cohesion and community management of natural resources, capacity building and supporting inclusive economic recovery through livelihood opportunities. In order to (re)establish stability and security, prevent further forced migration, restore trust among community members, vulnerable populations and local authorities and lay the foundations for peace and durable solutions, IOM will:

  • Engage civil society organizations (CSOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) including women and youth-led organizations, government institutions or other community associations on outreach strategies in partnership with the private sector and on formal and informal community programmes to promote participation and introduce participatory decision-making at the community level.
  • Build the capacity of local leaders and organizations to support social cohesion and conflict resolution sessions within the communities to promote peaceful coexistence in fragile contexts and amongst vulnerable local/host communities
  • Provide basic services and infrastructure such as community-owned buildings (schools, community learning centres, recreational facilities) as well as community-based programs (farming and small business cooperatives), to address grievances around strained and overused resources which are a source of inter/intra-community conflict and promote social cohesion.
  • Build community capacity for sustainable management of natural resources and basic services and support collective action and community-led interventions to promote social cohesion and local integration.
  • Facilitate climate change adaptation strategies and policies through capacity building of communities and authorities on climate-smart agriculture.
  • Provide training on drought-resistant agricultural techniques and livestock management.
  • Support skills development and income-generating opportunities in agriculture, livestock, trade, and animal health for vulnerable members of the community in an inclusive way (such as providing opportunities to community members from different tribes, including women and other underrepresented groups in decision making and job opportunities).
  • Support new small businesses or small businesses re-starting their economic activity after COVID-19 lockdown, especially for female-headed households and unemployed youth.
Funding required
$10,000,000
Plan types

Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations

People Targeted: 200,000 conflict/disaster-affected people including IDPs, returnees, and underserved home and host communities.

Entities Targeted: Ministry of Irrigation and Water, Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES).

IOM aims to provide water, sanitation, and hygiene in transitional and post-crisis situations to support underserved and at-risk communities to respond to their needs sustainably and improve capacity to endure future shocks. Activities will include:

  • In coordination with groups mainly responsible for collecting/fetching water considering their accessibility to these water points, safety concerns and risks, identify locations and drill, construct and/or rehabilitate water points and provide water purification kits and tablets as well as prepositioning of spare parts and tools to sustain or increase access to safe and clean water. Ensuring that the targeted communities have better livelihood opportunities by providing them with sufficient water for agriculture and livestock – which are primary sources of income in many of the communities.
  • Use community-led approaches to total sanitation (CLTS) to engage the community in designing the responses and supporting construction of more gender, age and disability sensitive latrines, and rehabilitation and maintenance of the sanitation facilities to prevent groundwater contamination, reduce open defecation and improve hygienic practices.
  • Provide hygiene promotion campaigns identified through participatory assessments to positively encourage a change in attitude and behaviour towards improved hygiene practices measured through KAP surveys.
  • Increase community resilience to disease outbreaks and malnutrition by addressing the risks related to faecal-oral transmission and water contamination through improved and sustained access to water, sanitation, and hygiene services.
  • Support governance structures and empower communities to take an active role in managing sustainable WASH systems. Community members will be trained to establish waste and water management committees, consisting of both men and women, to collect tariffs from community members to support the maintenance of facilitates and develop contingency and sustainability plans.
  • Actively work with government and national water authorities to build institutional capacity structure, coordination, management, O&M human resource capacity and provide supplies and financial resources to support local communities with sustainable WASH services.
  • Conduct research to implement risk-informed approaches that integrate emergency preparedness and prevention as well as response to government planning and promote innovative solutions for water provision and management of crises.
  • Provide training on DRR for the community to position new infrastructure in more secure locations and preventative measures to reduce environmental pollution through clean-up campaigns, and limit collapse of latrines and contamination of water sources, especially before crises.
Funding required
$6,000,000
Plan types

Objective
Strengthen preparedness and reduce disaster risk

$16,000,000
Funding required
1,000,050
People Targeted
9
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM foresees that emergency preparedness and support to reduce disaster risks for the following population groups:

  1. IDPs, IDP and refugee returnees and vulnerable internal migrants prone to risks associated with man-made or natural disasters, that may cause further protracted displacement, secondary displacement, or make sustainable return unsuccessful.
  2. Local communities prone to risks associated with man-made or natural disasters or where critical emergency or preventative measures are limited or not available.
  3. Stakeholders (Government counterparts, CSOs, CBOs NGOs) in need of training to better assist crisis-prone communities.

Points of entry

People Targeted: 50 government officials.

Entities Targeted: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior, Officials at Points of Entry (PoEs).

IOM supports governments at Points of Entry (PoEs) – airports, ports, and ground crossings – in line with the obligations and recommendations outlined in the International Health Regulations (2005). IOM in Sudan is co-lead for Pillar four (PoEs) of the UN COVID-19 Preparedness Response Plan with the World Health Organization. As such, IOM will:

  • Support health surveillance and screening at PoEs by rehabilitating infrastructure and facilities and providing equipment and supplies such as PPE and training for PoE staff on physical distancing measures, surveillance, infection prevention and control, and case definition/ referral protocols.
  • Provide risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) support at POE as part of awareness-raising and information sharing processes, including messaging on GBV risks and referral points during crises in coordination with protection partners.
Funding required
$1,000,000
Plan types

Emergency preparedness

People Targeted: 500,000 IDPs, returnees, and at-risk and vulnerable communities prone to risks associated with man-made or natural disasters.

Entities Targeted: government counterparts and local communities.

IOM will develop capacities of government and non-governmental partners to improve humanitarian response and provide services that are scalable and support community emergency preparedness and resilience. To achieve this, IOM will:

  • Conduct Comprehensive Community Assessments including Community Hazard and Resource Mapping which identify gaps in emergency preparedness services and response.
  • Build capacity of local counterparts and communities on emergency preparedness (EP).
  • Develop mechanisms and Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) on topics such as warehouse and stock management, supply chain management, and Infection and Prevention Control (IPC).
  • Preposition key supplies and items to rapidly respond to emergencies such as flood response and disease outbreaks including COVID-19.
  • Promote risk communication and community engagement improving (RCCE) activities as part of awareness-raising and information sharing process in communities including messaging on GBV risks and referral points during crises in coordination with protection partners.
Funding required
$10,000,000
Plan types

Disaster prevention

People Targeted: 500,000 IDPs, returnees, and at-risk and vulnerable communities prone to risks associated with man-made or natural disasters.

Entities Targeted: HAC, Civil Defence, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR).

IOM aims to develop disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies and mechanisms to manage environmental migration, address the impact of climate change, reduce the impact of disasters, and build the resilience of vulnerable communities to shocks and stresses. Activities will include:

  • Conduct assessments and collect sex, age, and disability data on prevalence and impact of disasters.
  • Build rapid response capacity of relevant government institutions and other key stakeholders to develop DRR plans including supporting the use of early warning systems and planned relocation.
  • Train beneficiaries on DRR to support community early recovery response and raise awareness on mitigation measures.
  • Establish community DRR committees with representation from vulnerable groups such as older persons, women, persons with disabilities, within existing structures (camps, settlements, and communities) in order to provide awareness-raising campaigns and promote longer-term resilience by developing contingency plans and strategies.
  • Work with Sudanese diaspora and other key stakeholders to develop DRR strategies and share livelihood and adaptation skills and knowledge with local communities.
  • Build/rehabilitate basic infrastructures such as proper drainage systems and culverts for flood prevention and to facilitate access to basic services (such as hospitals, markets, and schools).
Funding required
$5,000,000
Plan types

Objective
Contribute to an Evidence Based and Efficient Crisis Response System

$16,500,000
Funding required
400,000
People Targeted
175
Entities Targeted
Internal migrant, Internally displaced person, International migrant, Local population / community, Refugee
Primary target groups
Description of People and Entities Targeted

IOM foresees that support to partners for crisis response for the following stakeholders/population groups:

  1. Government counterparts, UN agencies, NGOs in need of humanitarian support services to assist crisis-affected people and communities. 

Displacement tracking

People Targeted: Indirect beneficiaries 3,420,643 IDPs, returnees from internal displacement, seasonal returnees, returnees from abroad and foreign nationals that will receive services based on the information provided.

Entities Targeted: 150 government counterparts, UN agencies, INGOs/NGOs, for more credible, comprehensive, and evidence-based situational analysis.

IOM will use the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) to regularly capture, process, and provide humanitarian actors with multi-layered information products, including sex and age disaggregated data, and the locations, composition, vulnerabilities such as disability and needs of displaced and mobile populations in order to deliver more targeted humanitarian assistance and response, as well as produce an evidence base for programme design, strategy, and operational planning across the country. The following methodologies will be used in Sudan in 2021 to provide this critical information management service:

  • Mobility Tracking (MT): Utilise key informant networks to systematically track mobility in locations of interest over consistent data collection rounds. Enumerators revisit each location and interview key informants to update and verify population presence on a quarterly basis.
  • Early Warning Flash Alerts and Emergency Event Tracking (EET): Deploy to track sudden displacements and population movements, provide more frequent updates on the scale of displacement that occurs between MT rounds, and quantify affected populations when needed. Early Warning Flash Alerts are disseminated within the first 24-48 hours of incidents to notify partners on sudden events where EET activities will subsequently take place. EET is activated within 72 hours of an incident induced by conflict or natural disaster to assist in rapid response planning.
  • Situation Assessments: Supplement EET, Situation Assessments collect data on populations in non-emergency settings or protracted situations caused by conflict or natural disaster, utilising a broad network of key informants to provide an overview of the context and inform response planning.
  • Multi-Sectoral Location Assessments (MSLA): Enhance and provide accurate and up to date information on the availability of services at major sites of displacement. Key indicators recorded will include population presence, shelter, food security, education, health, WASH, and protection, amongst other services.
  • Registration Activities: Provide rapid emergency and biometric registrations and data verifications with a priority of meeting immediate information needs for guiding direct assistance to vulnerable people – implemented in response to government or humanitarian partner requests. Registration data is used for beneficiary selection, vulnerability targeting and programming.
  • Flow Monitoring Registry (FMR): Capture movements of populations at key transit points and borders to quantify and provide regular updates on internal and cross-border flows.
  • COVID-19 Data Collection: If needed, re-activate DTM data collection on mobility restrictions at airports, border crossing points, land border crossing points, as well as internal transit point restrictions; as well as data collection from IDP camps including impediments to camp access, the impact of COVID-19 on IDPs and IDPs affected by mobility restrictions.  DTM will also collect information on additional indicators reflecting the socioeconomic impact of the pandemic on mobile populations. 
Funding required
$6,500,000
Plan types

Support services for response actors

People Targeted: 400,000 IDPs and other affected populations that will receive services based on support provided.

Entities Targeted: 25 INGOs/NNGOs.

To build the capacity of partners to provide life-saving humanitarian assistance, IOM will:

  • Manage a flexible, efficient and needs-based fund disbursement mechanism - “Rapid Response Fund (RRF)” - to further support humanitarian actors, mainly international and national non-governmental organizations (NGO), who are providing assistance to people affected by natural and/or human-made disasters in Sudan in an effective and timely manner. Provide training on proposal writing grants for NGOs under the following sectors of emergency response: non-food items (NFI), water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services, shelter and settlements, protection, health, and humanitarian coordination assistance.  Provide training on proposal development, reporting, and humanitarian principles such as protection from sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA) and accountability to affected populations (AAP) to ensure that funds are used effectively for NGOs.
  • Fill identified gaps in the emergency logistics and transportation capacity of humanitarian partners in close coordination with the Logistics and Emergency Transportation (LET) sector lead, WFP, OCHA and other UN agencies at the field level by providing logistics services and transporting relief items to support the humanitarian community's response to emergency needs of vulnerable populations affected by natural disasters and/or by conflict, particularly those living in rural areas with limited access to services.
  • Support capacity building of government counterparts on logistics-related training.
Funding required
$10,000,000
Plan types
Operational presence in

Sudan

31
International staff and affiliated work force
337
National staff and affiliated work force
13
IOM field office

 

Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.

With thanks to our current donors