IOM Chad works to support forcibly displaced communities along border regions to provide life-saving humanitarian assistance and support to the Government of Chad in identifying opportunities to progressively address displacement situations including through the development of early/anticipatory actions to prepare for disasters, including extreme weather events. IOM Chad’s community stabilization, peacebuilding and durable solutions programming holistically address displacement drivers and ensure an integrated humanitarian response which enables beneficiaries, communities and authorities to pro-actively and autonomously plan, design and participate in the shaping of programmes to enable a seamless transition and limit dependence on humanitarian aid.
- Newly displaced IDPs by armed conflict;
- IDPs in protracted displaced situations, who receive no assistance;
- Newly displaced IDPs by natural hazards; and
- Stranded migrants, including those forcibly returned in the north.
IOM's shelter interventions will include:
- Provision of S/NFI Cluster-approved emergency and transitional shelters to newly displaced persons and persons in protracted displacement situations in the Lake Province, according to needs and context assessments;
- Distribution of cash targeted towards shelter and NFI assistance;
- Distribution of tree seedlings to beneficiaries to green IOM’s shelter intervention; and
- Provision of NFI kits to newly displaced persons and persons in protracted displacement situations in the Lake Province, according to needs and context assessments.
IOM's mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions will include:
- Training of community leaders and first responders on the provision of Psychological First Aid (PFA);
- Creation of “safe spaces” for community members to gather and discuss and/or meet with MHPSS service providers. The MHPSS service providers are often employed by the State or the municipal council – and are trained in individual and group counselling. In addition, for individuals requiring specialized mental health services, the MHPSS service providers can refer cases to mental health care professionals. Safe spaces are provided through the creation and support of community centres along the borders with the Central African Republic, Niger, Libya, Cameroon, and the Lake region; and
- Community-based MHPSS activities on displacement sites, including socio-relational and cultural MHPSS activities.
All MHPSS activities will be in line with the IOM Manual on Community-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement, as well as the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings.
IOM will provide humanitarian assistance to stranded migrants and stranded returnees in the north of Chad through:
- Construction of emergency transit centre for stranded returnees and migrants and, if required, safe houses for women and girls;
- Provision of basic NFI such as blankets, buckets, mosquito nets, clothes, as well as dignity kits for women and girls;
- Distribution of cash for transportation wherever deemed appropriate;
- Coordination with health authorities on health screening and monitoring during quarantine periods;
- Onward movement assistance to their locality of origin, based on informed consent principles. Migrants have access to information about assistance options and transport is provided through public transport, given the geographic location of the migrant referral points in northern Chad and the absence of sufficient infrastructure. IOM will engage closely with local health providers for pre-departure visual medical checks and local authorities for possible referral of specific protection cases;
- Case management and counselling;
- Outreach and awareness-raising;
- Recording biographical data and biometrics of beneficiaries in IOM’s proprietary tools;
- Ensuring travel documentation is secured and accurate prior to travel;
- Point of travel observation (PTO) by non-clinical officers aiming to recognize travellers who are visibly unwell and potentially require a more comprehensive assessment or health intervention by a medical officer;
- For surface movements – assessing surface conditions and security to assign appropriate movement type;
- Working with partners to ensure security arrangements are in place for safe passage (convoys, armed escorts); and
- Accommodation and catering arrangements for migrants in transit.
IOM's protection initiatives will include:
- Provision of training on mechanisms to respond to, mitigate risks of, and prevent GBV for government, local authorities, community members, and organizations in coordination with other involved partners, building on established referral mechanisms;
- Conducting participatory community assessments on the perception of the needs of women and girls within the community to sustainably address questions of GBV within the community;
- Conducting protection assessments and analyses to address protection risks and develop programming based on evidence, focused on community-developed response mechanisms adapted to the local context and local best practices;
- Addressing trafficking in persons by supporting good governance of migration including the advocacy efforts for the creation of a dedicated national Commission to fight trafficking.
- Awareness raising through workshops and trainings to sensitize government officials, including border personnel, law enforcement and judicial police, civil society members and humanitarian agencies on Counter-Trafficking and Protection measures for migrants;
- Provision of direct assistance to migrants vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of violence, exploitation, and abuse through emergency health assistance, food and non-food item distribution, lodging in transit centres, land transportation facilities for domestic migrants and AVRR for international migrants;
- Development of formal national SOPs for the identification and referral of VoTs for government counterparts, especially border officials and law enforcement personnel;
- Providing inclusive assistance sensitive to the needs of all population groups, such as the distribution of dignity kits, MHM for girls and women, and other specific items for children, PWD, the elderly, etc. based on the vulnerability and needs identified;
- Distribution of dignity kits and Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) items to women and girls in situations of forced displacements based on needs assessments;
- Provision of training on GBV and PSEA referral mechanisms, among others, to ensure data collectors conform to protection norms during disclosure of incidents; and
- Train staff members, vendors and partners on PSEA, including the training of data collection actors on how to respond to the disclosure of protection incidents and how to report Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) allegations.
IOM's Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) activities will focus on:
- Conducting site assessments, including, site planning, needs assessments, stakeholder mapping, vulnerability assessments, and more at both, official and informal sites, wherein the Disability Index is mainstreamed in terms of site assessments, evaluating barriers and possible accommodations; in infrastructural interventions, ensuring accessibility; in distributions and promotion activities, ensuring that they are accessible and inclusive;
- Provision of solar lighting to common and central areas in displacement sites such as water points, shops and latrines; and
- Conducting of registrations.
IOM's water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) support will include:
- WASH infrastructures and services, including the provision of safe and sufficient water and sanitation services in communal transit centres for stranded migrants and returnees;
- Basic hygiene promotion activities, and provision of basic hygiene kits inclusive of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) kits for women and girls; and
- Provision of WASH services (latrines, boreholes) in displacement sites in the Lake region and the South.
IOM WASH activities will be implemented ensuring that the Disability Index (DI) is mainstreamed in all these activities, the needs of PWD are identified during assessment exercises, the infrastructure developed is accessible to PWD, and a constant effort is taken to further strengthen the DI of IOM’s WASH activities.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
- IDPs in protracted displaced in Lake Province and South of Chad as well as local communities in which they reside;
- Fragile communities, including herder and farmer communities and gold mining areas; and
- Youths at risk of irregular migration.
IOM will work towards the progressive resolution of displacement situations for displaced people, returnees in the south and IDPs in the Lake Chad Basin area, considering mobility solutions as appropriate, in line with IOM's Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations Framework (PRDS) and the UN Secretary General’s Action Agenda on Internal Displacement. IOM's interventions will include:
- Support to local authorities to identify opportunities for enhancement of IDP or returnee sites into functioning communities with access to socio-economic infrastructures;
- Support to community members to link their pre-displacement habitual livelihood with the realities of the displacement area of arrival; and
- Support to the formalization of representation and conflict resolution mechanisms previously established between traditional and administrative authorities.
IOM will support communities in addressing the root causes of instability through:
- Provision of access to community decision-making structures for all community members (including women, youth, migrants, mobile populations, and traditional and administrative authorities).
- Provision of alternative means of livelihood and participating in decision-making processes in Chad’s border regions, building on Do No Harm principles;
- Enhancing institutional capacities to secure and manage Chadian borders by strengthening the engagement with communities and developing more coherent approaches to border management;
- Support to communities and authorities to provide identity management access as the basis for civic engagement in the country;
- Support to community-based natural resource management mechanisms focused on safe and dignified labour conditions, equitable access and linkages with the national natural resource management structures by supporting local mediation and peacebuilding efforts for communities in the centre-north, where appropriate;
- Organization of social cohesion activities for communities in the south along the transhumance corridor, to work with local governance structures in communities where transhumance movements may trigger tensions with resident communities. Communities will further benefit from monitoring through the transhumance tracking tool.
- Provision of sustainable access to water and sanitation services through the support of improved water and sanitation infrastructure to rural populations in covered areas of interventions as well as structuring community management and maintenance committees.
IOM's peacebuilding and peace preservation initiatives will include:
- Support to communities, in a joint approach with other partners, in central and northern Chad to provide alternative livelihoods for youth, support youth engagement in community processes, and sensitize youth about the risks related to irregular migration to the north;
- Support through an innovative community-based approach, in Borkou, Ennedi-Ouest, and Tibesti, towards peaceful and conscientious natural resource management by engaging with the traditional and administrative authorities, youth and women to also develop strategies for sustainable solutions;
- Support to herder and farmer communities to reduce tensions linked to resource management and conflict surrounding transhumance movements in southern Chad through a joint approach with other partners;
- Support for collaboration between communities and authorities in gold mining areas of the north; and
- Supporting the safe management of gold mines.
- People at risk of / or displaced by natural hazards;
- Persons affected and irregular migrants resulting from climate change; and
- Local authorities.
IOM will support local authorities and the Directorate for Civil Protection to reduce the risk of disasters through:
- Implementation of small-scale infrastructural mitigation works, notably to address floods risk;
- Mapping of potential risks and safe areas along identified hazardous zones (i.e. prone to the risk of flooding and wildfires);
- Conducting an in-depth technical remote sensing flood risk and vulnerability mapping of target areas;
- Construction and rehabilitation of public infrastructure, including rainwater runoff systems, retention walls, spate irrigation, and more to mitigate the impact of climate change including unseasonal rainfall, flooding, and landslides. Special emphasis will be given to the reuse of the potential flood water for agricultural purposes at the community level;
- Strengthening capacity of knowledge management within the government response mechanisms;
- Awareness-raising and support to communities to understand risks and implement preventive practices as well as capacity building on building back safer;
- Capacity strengthening of the Chadian government to ensure more regular reporting on hazards to the AMHEWAS situation rooms; and
- Implementation of the Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT) to provide information on sudden natural hazards, and conflicts that may have implications on the displacement of people.
In order to support emergency preparedness IOM plans to:
- Support the establishment of community contingency planning through community-based workshops, ensuring the equal participation of women, youth, persons with disability and older persons;
- Advance planning, procurement, and local pre-positioning of shelter and NFI kits in order to be able to provide life-saving assistance following a shock;
- Reinforce the capacity of local authorities to respond to emergencies;
- Contribution to inter-agency efforts for preparedness and early/anticipatory actions, in order to increase a comprehensive humanitarian response to displacements.
- Humanitarian and development actors active in the wider response in Lake Province, including agropastoral organizations, local authorities, transhumant and farmer communities;
- Rapid Response Mechanism and other immediate responders;
- Actors involved in transition and recovery; and
- Specific humanitarian actors.
IOM's data collection and analysis initiatives will include:
- Displacement tracking in Lake Province, through implementation of rounds of DTM’s Mobility Tracking methodology, which gathers information on estimates of the number of displaced persons, profiles of displaced populations, access to services and living conditions, and priority needs and assistance;
- Implementation of the Emergency Tracking Tool countrywide, to collect and report immediate data on, but not limited to, sudden displacements, collective expulsion, forced returns, and climatic emergencies, in order to inform life-saving assistance;
- Conducting Return Intention Surveys in Lake Province to collect information on displaced persons’ intentions, as well as the conditions necessary for a sustainable return or integration;
- Flow monitoring of people on the move in key transit points in the country, especially along routes encompassing high rates of irregular migration and movements of vulnerable migrants, in order to gather the amplitude of migration along these routes, migrants’ profiles and vulnerabilities;
- Implementation of the Stability Index, as key to the HDPN, with the purpose of assessing the level of stability of areas hosting displaced populations in the Lake Province and highlighting factors most influencing this level of stability. The ultimate objective is to allow targeted programming in localities according to their stability and, thus, to allow coherent interventions that link humanitarian, transition and development approaches according to the situation of localities; and
- Roll out of the Transhumance Tracking Tool (TTT) in Southern and Eastern Chad, to collect data on transhumance flows and emergency situations surrounding transhumance aims at informing programs of prevention and management of conflicts related to transhumance and pastoralism.
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.