IOM collaborates closely with the Government of Mozambique and communities to strengthen the resilience of displaced persons and other affected populations, supporting progress towards durable solutions while ensuring critical humanitarian needs are met and rapid response capacities in the event of new disasters and crises are maintained. This simultaneous rather than sequential approach strengthens coherence between humanitarian, development and peace actions, and enables IOM to capitalize on the comparative advantages of each pillar to reduce overall vulnerability and the number of unmet needs, strengthen risk management capacities and respond to critical needs while building resilience, addressing the root causes of crises, and supporting sustainable solutions.
Internally displaced populations in host communities, temporary and relocation sites, host communities themselves affected by insecurity, as well as migrants and people at risk of displacement due to conflict and natural hazards, including those with specific vulnerabilities, such as people living with disabilities, gender-based violence (GBV) survivors.
With ongoing displacement in the northern provinces and cyclone displacement in the central region, 2021 has continued to contribute to responding to internal displacement and forced IDPs in camps and camp-like settings in both regions. The attack on Palma in March 2021 changed the dynamic of displacement in the north, increasing flows of IDPs to Montepuez and Mueda which had previously received comparatively low numbers of IDPs. Throughout the year, attention has also broadened to consider durable solutions and how to ensure a principled approach. In 2022, IOM will:
- Ensure core coordination mechanisms are in place and continue to adequately support the coordination of service providers, advocacy and information management;
- Deploy CCCM mobile and static teams and provide coordination support; and
- Facilitate CCCM operational planning and response by providing technical support and capacity-building interventions to officials from the INGD.
- Implement site development, care and maintenance with accessibility adaptations;
- Conduct CCCM community engagement interventions, support/set up inclusive and representative governance structures to enhance meaningful community engagement and ownership, and implement community engagement activities in displacement sites including complaint and feedback mechanisms, information campaigns and intention surveys;
- Develop and set minimum standards for camps and camp-like settings;
- Act as the provider of last resort; and
- Provide technical, coordination, and training support on GBV mainstreaming to IOM operations and CCCM clusters in the field.
Health facilities in crisis-affected areas in Northern and Central Mozambique are under pressure due to increased demand for services and lack of resources and capacity to cope with the increased catchment population due to displacement. Especially in the areas receiving people displaced due to insecurity in Cabo Delgado, district health services have limited capacity and logistical resources to fully integrate newly displaced and resettled communities into their regular outreach services schedule. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has created additional risks to public health, especially for vulnerable migrants and internally displaced people, as they are on the move and can face additional barriers to accessing services, both preventative and curative. IOM will:
- Deploy and/or support integrated mobile brigades to deliver comprehensive primary health care services and provide referrals to secondary care;
- Conduct community-based outreach to identify individuals in need of health support and maintain/establish referral mechanisms;
- Strengthen the community health system through training and capacity building of community health committees to improve diseases prevention, health promotion and care-seeking practices;
- Conduct awareness raising on COVID-19 prevention, hygiene promotion, TB and HIV, sexual and reproductive health, and access to services;
- Provide technical support, including:
- Essential medicines, medical supplies, and preposition equipment, in coordination with government and cluster partners;
- Tailored health services, particularly around sexual and reproductive health and rights;
- Ensuring HIV and TB prevention and treatment are available and accessible.
- Support COVID-19 vaccination campaigns by addressing rumours and misinformation about COVID-19 vaccinations, promoting acceptability and uptake among IDPs and migrants, and supporting the identification of vulnerable populations, IDPs and migrant communities to support microplanning and COVID-19 vaccine delivery.
IOM will continue to assist people living in insecurity-affected communities with the provision of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) services, particularly in communities affected by traumatic events, multiple displacements, and limited access to services, in close coordination with protection interventions. IOM will:
- Conduct rapid assessment and mapping of services to identify the main protection and mental health needs and gaps in communities;
- Deploy and train protection and MHPSS activists to conduct community-based activities and identify and refer persons in need of MHPSS and protection services;
- Organize community-based MHPSS and protection activities;
- Provide basic counselling (individual, family and group counselling) and psychosocial support to crisis-affected persons;
- Refer individuals affected by crises to specialized services such as health, mental health and protection;
- Provide direct assistance to vulnerable individual;
- Conduct capacity-building sessions on psychological first aid (PFA), trafficking in persons and child protection for the government and other partners;
- Support government mobile brigades to provide access to basic services, including protection services;
- Organize community outreach activities on root causes of community suffering (mental health, gender-based violence, trafficking in persons, violence against children, violence against women);
- Raise awareness of affected communities on gender-based violence, trafficking in persons and violence against children, and how to prevent these forms of violence and access support services.
All MHPSS activities will be in line with the IOM Manual on Community-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement and coordinated with partners.
IOM promotes access to protection services for IDPs and host communities, including in relocation sites. Therefore, IOM ensures that any response is delivered according to needs, prioritizes safety and dignity, is grounded on participation and empowerment of local capacities and ultimately holds humanitarian actors accountable vis–à-vis affected individuals and communities. Through its integrated approach targeting priority displacement sites and areas receiving new arrivals, IOM’s multi-sector approach will include protection, medical and MHPSS to respond to the needs of affected households and the most vulnerable individuals. This will include:
- Deployment of integrated Protection-MHPSS teams to deliver services;
- Supporting vulnerable individuals with life-saving protection assistance, including material support and referrals;
- Capacity strengthening through the deployment of emergency protection teams and provision of support to community-based protection structures through capacity-building, technical, material and transportation assistance;
- Awareness raising and sensitization on Gender-Based Violence (GBV), mechanisms and structures for the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA) and distribution of IEC materials;
- Building the capacity of government and non-governmental humanitarian staff on protection, including in camp management, and prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA);
- Raising awareness of affected communities on trafficking in persons and violence against children, and how to prevent these forms of violence and access support services; and
- Strengthen the capacity of existing Child Protection Community Committees and Reference Groups on Child Protection and Combating Trafficking in Persons.
IOM’s WASH interventions will aim at improving access to sufficient and safe water and sanitation services for insecurity-affected populations, as well as improving hygiene practices in displacement sites and host communities in northern Mozambique. IOM also strives to increase longer-term sustainability and to ensure reliable access to life-saving water and sanitation through rehabilitation and construction of water and sanitation facilities, hygiene promotion and water management capacity development in vulnerable communities. This will include:
- Supporting access to safe water through rehabilitation/upgrading of water delivery systems in camps and out of camp locations;
- Supporting improved sanitation through rehabilitation/upgrade of latrines, and/or installation of new latrines, based on need;
- Engaging gender-equal male and female hygiene promotors to deliver hygiene promotion messaging, including risk communication and community engagement for COVID-19, AWD/cholera and other infectious/communicable diseases;
- Distribution of culturally appropriate hygiene kits inclusive of menstrual hygiene management MHM) items;
- Establishment of community-led WASH Committees to ensure ongoing operation and maintenance of WASH infrastructure.
All distribution and hygiene promotion activities will be implemented following national guidelines on COVID-19 preventive measures, such as physical distancing.
Displaced populations, including newly displaced and those in protracted and/or secondary displacement, and their host communities (Mozambique - Emergency Tracking Tool Report) are in urgent need of emergency shelter and NFI support, including essential household items to secure safe, dignified, and healthy living conditions that provide at least basic protection from further adversities. IOM will continue to support these populations by:
- Ensuring shelter/NFI responses are coordinated and effective through IOM’s role as the shelter/NFI cluster lead agency, strengthening cluster coordination and enhancing support to cluster partners;
- Using DTM data and conducting assessments to identify needs and identify the most vulnerable households and individuals in need, including people with specific needs (women, children, elderly, people living with disabilities);
- Providing appropriate shelter solutions, including emergency shelter, in-kind and in-cash support, including training or development of IEC materials on assembly techniques for emergency shelters;
- Procuring, prepositioning and distributing non-food item kits containing essential household items coordinated with the shelter/NFI cluster and adapted to the needs identified and context for each region;
- Maintaining a contingency stock of NFI items to rapidly respond to needs arising from sudden natural or man-made events;
- Transporting and distributing shelter materials and tools as per the distribution plan and providing support to partners to access the IOM common pipeline materials.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
Internally displaced persons and affected communities, as well as communities at risk of displacement due to natural hazards and/or insecurity. This pillar of intervention includes durable solutions, shelter and housing recovery as well as peacebuilding. It aims to build on the coping capacities of beneficiaries to strengthen the resilience of IDPs and other affected populations and at-risk communities.
Although the need for essential life-saving assistance remains widespread, IOM recognizes the need for simultaneous recovery and stabilization interventions, in line with the Triple Nexus approach. IOM aims at addressing the drivers of conflict and displacement and strengthening the resilience of communities to cope with man-made and natural shocks. IOM will seek to further support governments, states and communities undergoing significant socioeconomic and political changes during and following a crisis, to (re)establish stability and security, prevent further forced migration, restore trust among community members, vulnerable populations and local authorities and lay the foundations for durable solutions, lasting peace and sustainable development. Activities will include:
- Conducting ongoing, flexible, adaptable information gathering in areas of programmatic implementation, and surrounding districts with impact and influence on programmatic areas;
- Conducting focus group and key informant interview discussions to understand existing community groups and structures that promote peace, security and social cohesion, taking into account gender, social position, family position, religion, hereditary titles, language, and ethnic group;
- Supporting women, men and youth groups with capacity building designed to empower these groups as peacemakers and implement activities in their communities, including cultural activities that promote conflict mediation, reconciliation and community peace and security;
- Conducting community-based planning and sessions to identify sources of community tension, resources and opportunities and prioritize solutions;
- Supporting tangible investments at the individual, group and community level including income generation initiatives and community revitalization projects;
- Implementing community-based activities to promote social cohesion in communities receiving ex-combatants.
In line with the Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework which IOM adopted in 2016, as well as the Secretary General’s Action Agenda to promote Solutions to Internal Displacement, IOM will continue to promote an inclusive, resilience-based approach in Mozambique and embrace mobility strategies that support progression towards resolving displacement, while ensuring safety nets are in place to avoid potentially harmful mobility strategies and supporting IDPs living in resettlement sites in the central area and northern Mozambique and affected communities through preventive and recovery measures using a holistic approach. This will include:
- Fostering self-reliance among IDPs and affected communities by providing technical and labour support for durable housing;
- Training households and craftsmen on safe and resilient construction practices, including on DRR.
- Raising awareness and knowledge of Build Back Better principles for long-term resilient communities and construction preparedness is established;
- Conducting infrastructure work such as clearing roads, drainage, streetlighting, wells, WASH services, market facilities, and so forth;
- Revitalizing local economies towards longer-term solutions by facilitating inclusive access to livelihoods and employment, and linking needs with demands while re-building skills, assets and networks;
- Capacity building to local governance structures to promote inclusive governance (especially for underrepresented groups such as women, youth and people with disabilities) and sustainable solutions for displacement;
- Providing technical support for settlement planning and preparation interventions to make communities more resilient towards hazards (for example, drainage and physical mitigation measures) and to foster an environment that is conducive to a peaceful, healthy and functional community life (adequate space allocations for public spaces and community infrastructures).
Conflict and disaster have caused unprecedented damage to health infrastructure, and displacement due to the current security situation has exacerbated the strain on the current health and social systems. IOM’s intervention will aim to:
- Strengthen the capacity of the public health authorities to deliver services in areas affected by insecurity and with a high concentration of IDPs and improve the health system’s capacity to detect public health events in communities through training of MOH and district health staff and the provision of technical support and equipment;
- Support provincial and district health services to implement mobile outreach services to highly affected and hard-to-reach communities, with logistics support and technical assistance (IOM medical supervisor).
Insecurity, displacement and disasters can cause significant psychological and social suffering to affected populations, particularly in the medium to long-term. As aligned with the multisector integrated approach towards more durable solutions, IOM will continue assisting people living in displacement sites and affected communities through individual and community-based support based on IOM's global expertise and local capacities. This will be done through an integrated MHPSS approach, and include protective and preventive measures that seek to encourage social cohesion and conflict resolution within affected communities. Activities will include:
- Conducting capacity building exercises on MHPSS and PFA to ensure standards as established by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) and the IOM Manual on Community-based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement;
- Conducting community-based assessments and focus groups discussions to identify existing coping strategies of the community and meaningful activities for community members;
- Supporting community-based engagement and sociorelational activities such as cultural and art-based activities, rituals and celebrations, recreational and sports activities, and social events;
- Strengthening existing community networks such as women’s, youth and elderly groups and associations, handicrafts, sports and music groups and promote discussions about psychosocial problems and negative feelings in a more structured and non-stigmatizing way and encourage and promote activities that foster social cohesion;
- Supporting community-based psychosocial support activities and protection/MHPSS actors (including the provision of supplies and rehabilitation of spaces (such as community spaces and counselling rooms)) in the identified locations.
IOM Mozambique’s Peacebuilding and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration programme aims both to prevent and resolve tension and insecurity. It does so by addressing tensions and insecurity as drivers of displacement and by supporting sustainable peace and reintegration. Programmatic responses will focus on understanding the root causes and addressing the social, economic, resource, or political dynamics that drive insecurity and tension. Activities will include:
- Conducting community-based planning processes to empower communities, including vulnerable socio-economic groups and their leaders, to actively participate in development interventions and prioritize community investments;
- Supporting existing informal community businesses to provide income (formal or informal) to other community members. Income incentives may be regular or irregular, depending on the context;
- Improving civic engagement through education and investments in local structures and “know your rights” campaigns;
- Supporting community radio in disseminating programming and messaging on resilience, social cohesion and prevention of violent extremism, while promoting positive community-government relationships;
- Strengthening community conflict mediation and reconciliation mechanisms;
- Strengthening the ability of the Government of Mozambique for effective, early return to areas recently deemed accessible;
- Supporting small-scale infrastructure projects prioritized by communities that incentivize peace and provide a direct, tangible benefit to communities;
- Continuing supporting disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) activities in central Mozambique and support government actors in northern Mozambique in the development of a post-conflict/DDR policy;
- Supporting community policing through technical support, training and mentoring; and
- Supporting the Government in the development of policies, strategies and guidelines on peacebuilding and prevention of violent extremism (PVE).
IOM’s WASH activities aim to implement resilient and durable solutions for safe water access and sustainable sanitation while ensuring behavioural changes in hygiene practices within communities. These will include:
- Supporting sustainable access to safe water through rehabilitation/upgrade of existing water supply networks and/or installation of new infrastructure such as wells, based on need;
- Supporting sustainable sanitation through rehabilitation/upgrade of waste management systems and latrines;
- Engaging gender-equal male and female hygiene promotors to deliver hygiene promotion messaging, including risk communication and community engagement for COVID-19, AWD/cholera and other infectious/communicable diseases to promote behaviour change;
- Establishment of community-led WASH Committees to ensure ongoing operation and maintenance of WASH infrastructure.
Activities are designed to be in line with IOM’s country programme (pillar 3, focus area 7,) and the reconstruction programmes of the government for Cabo Delgado, at the same time working closely with other IOM units to ensure holistic solutions.
Target beneficiaries are internally displaced populations in resettlement and relocation sites, areas at risk and host communities affected by crises. The interventions strongly focus on communities at risk of displacement due to disasters or insecurity and will strongly involve community engagement to ensure people that may face particular risks of experiencing harm following a disaster, such as persons with disabilities, the elderly, and women and girls are reached and included in the response.
IOM Mozambique’s work on disaster risk reduction (DRR) will contribute to the government’s efforts to implement the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. IOM’s DRR programmes will integrate mobility-based strategies in efforts to reduce disaster risk and strengthen resilience. Paying particular attention to at-risk communities, migrants, including displaced populations, and other vulnerable mobile groups, this programming aims to prevent or reduce displacement through support for prevention and mitigation, risk governance and information. Activities will include:
- Conducting multi-hazard risk assessments in locations prone to be affected by disaster due to natural hazards;
- Mapping potential evacuation sites, access to services and physical access constraints across the Cabo Delgado province;
- Building capacity of the national and provincial government in tracking and analyzing internal displacement;
- Conducting trainings for members of affected communities on building back safer techniques to construct and maintain resilient temporary shelters in coordination with CCCM and Protection mobile teams; and
- Strengthening resilience through “build back better” measures in recovery and reconstruction.
IOM aims to support the government and humanitarian partners to provide an effective operational response to ongoing and sudden-onset emergencies in Mozambique. Through the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), IOM supports collaborative responses conducted in close cooperation with the UN system and other organizations and with due respect for individual mandates and expertise. Its participation in the United Nations Consolidated Appeals Process, its lead role under the cluster approach in camp coordination and camp management in natural hazards, and the fact that it is a key partner in emergency shelter, logistics, health, protection and early recovery ensure that its activities are well coordinated. Activities will include:
- Procurement, warehousing and prepositioning of shelter and non-food items;
- Capacity-building of government institutions in conducting assessments and distributing emergency relief items; and
- Supporting the development of early action/contingency plans.
Points of Entry (PoEs) are a key intervention space within the mobility continuum, highlighted as one component of a comprehensive immigration, border management and health response to promote safe cross-border mobility. IOM’s PoEs activities aim at strengthening border management through an integrated/coordinated approach incorporating human mobility and health security considerations in line with the International Health Regulations (2005) and will include:
- Implementing interventions at PoEs, and at the central level, in close collaboration with the National Migration Service (SENAMI) and Ministry of Health (MISAU), such as:
- Build the capacities of border officials on border management, security documents, fraud detection, intelligence and risk analysis, trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, protection of migrants in vulnerable situations and humanitarian border management;
- Strengthen the capacities of border officials on intercultural communication and languages such as English;
- Train immigration officers on basic and advanced ICT so they can use the border management information system;
- Promote small-scale trade between border communities through the introduction of Border Residency Cards for selected border communities;
- Support the United Nations Legal Identity Agenda to increase access to services and reduce risks of violence, abuse and exploitation, by promoting access to legal identity for migrants and persons in migrant-sending communities in Mozambique;
- Support the establishment of one-stop border posts as part of the key priorities of the SADC Protocol on the Free Movement of People and Goods.
- Build the capacities of the Government of Mozambique and communities to prevent, detect and respond to health threats along the mobility continuum, including but not limited to borders (points of entry). Undertaking PoE assessments and providing support to integrate human mobility and health security aspects into border management in line with national policy; and
- Supporting Mozambique's North Integrated Development Agency (ADIN) in the implementation of its Resilience and Development Strategy for the North (ERDIN), building trust between SENAMI and cross-border communities.
Institutions, particularly Instituto Nacional de Gestão e Redução do Risco de Desastres (INGD) and Agência de Desenvolvimento Integrado do Norte (ADIN), as well as crisis response partners, who will benefit from displacement data and other information management products to support evidence-based planning.
IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) in Mozambique remains the leading humanitarian data provider to support response planning. Information on conditions and needs of affected communities and displacement trends as well as in-depth thematic assessments are key to addressing current Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) indicators and identifying priorities for the different sectoral responses. In 2022 IOM will:
- Utilize mobility tracking and emergency tracking tools to collect and disseminate relevant data on displacements, needs, vulnerabilities and response gaps;
- Implement multi-sector needs assessments, thematic surveys and rapid needs assessments to collect and disseminate relevant data to improve the humanitarian response; and
- Conduct flow-monitoring at points of entry and population mobility analysis for disease outbreak preparedness and response and to monitor new movements.
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.