IOM Chad is actively working on creating space to implement transitional programs across various emergency situations in the country. The Country Office is sharpening its focus on the humanitarian-development-peace nexus. Specifically, IOM Chad works in support of displaced communities in remote and border regions to provide life-saving humanitarian assistance and to support the Government of Chad in identifying opportunities to address short-term displacement while progressively resolving protracted displacement situations. To this end, IOM is increasingly orienting its programming towards community stabilization, peacebuilding, and integrated holistic community development, particularly along the borders with Libya, the Central African Republic, and in the Lake Chad Basin area in order to address displacement drivers and ensure an integrated response. In parallel, IOM continues to develop its response to short-term displacement situations, notably due to natural hazard, through lifesaving assistance as well as mitigation and disaster risk reduction activities. IOM's initiatives aim to not only respond to lifesaving needs but also enable beneficiaries, communities and authorities to proactively and sustainably plan, design and participate in programmes to allow a seamless transition and limit dependence on humanitarian aid.
- Persons newly displaced by armed conflict;
- Persons in protracted displaced situations, who receive no assistance;
- Persons newly displaced by natural hazards;
- Stranded migrants, including those forcibly returned, in the north.
IOM's shelter interventions will include:
- Provision of SNFI Cluster-approved emergency and transitional shelter kits to newly displaced persons and persons in protracted displacement situations in the Lac Province, according to needs and context assessments;
- Distribution of tree seedlings to beneficiaries to green IOM’s shelter intervention;
- Provision of NFI kits to newly displaced persons and persons in protracted displacement situations in the Lac Province, according to needs and context assessments.
IOM's mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions will include:
- Training of community leaders and first responders on the provision of psychological first aid (PFA);
- Creation of “safe spaces” for community members to gather and discuss and/or meet with MHPSS service providers. Safe spaces are provided through the creation/support of (community) centres, specifically along the borders with the Central African Republic, Niger, Libya, Cameroon, and the Lac region, based on identified context and established practices as identified through needs/context assessments prior to project implementation;
- Implementation of community-based MHPSS activities on displacement sites, including but not limited to, sociorelational and cultural MHPSS activities.
All MHPSS activities will be in line with the IOM Manual on Community-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergencies and Displacement, as well as the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings.
IOM will provide humanitarian assistance to stranded migrants and stranded returnees in the north of Chad through:
- Construction of emergency transit centres for stranded returnees and migrants and, if required, safe houses for women and girls;
- Provision of basic NFI, blankets, buckets, mosquito nets, clothes, as well as dignity kits for women and girls;
- Provision of food during the quarantine/period of the stay;
- Coordination with health authorities on health screening and monitoring during quarantine periods;
- Provision of onward movement assistance to localities of origin, based on informed consent principles. Migrants have access to information about assistance options and transport is provided through public transport, given the geographic location of the migrant referral points in northern Chad and the absence of sufficient infrastructure. IOM will engage closely with local health providers for pre-departure visual medical checks and local authorities for possible referral of specific protection cases;
- Provision of COVID-19 based support to points of entry (POE), management of the isolation facilities for stranded migrants.
IOM's protection initiatives will include:
- Providing training on mechanisms to respond to, mitigate risks of and prevent GBV for government, local authorities, community members, and organizations in coordination with other involved partners, building on established referral mechanisms;
- Conducting participatory community assessment on the perception of the needs of women and girls within the community to sustainably address questions of GBV within the community and provide targeted support to survivors;
- Conducting protection assessments and analysis to address protection risks and develop programming based on evidence, focused on community-developed response mechanisms adapted to the local context and local best practices;
- Addressing trafficking in persons by supporting good governance of migration including the creation of a dedicated national Commission to fight trafficking and sensitizing government to protection at borders;
- Providing direct assistance to migrants vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of violence, exploitation, and abuse and conducting awareness raising of risks;
- Developing of a formal national standard operating procedures for the identification and referral of victims of trafficking;
- Distributing dignity kits and MHM items to women in situation of forced displacements based on needs assessments;
- Providing training on mechanism to respond to protection disclosure incidents to data collection actors.
IOM's health support initiatives will include:
- Providing support for COVID-19 related efforts at points of entry (POE), including building and maintaining isolation facilities, providing protective equipment, conducting risk communication and community engagement, assisting migrants in quarantine with WASH services, and building capacities of POE government response teams including on protection and incident disclosure, for instance services and referral mechanisms available for individuals at risk/in need, such as victims of trafficking (VoTs) and gender-based violence (GBV) survivors;
- Enhancing detection, prevention and control of epidemic prone diseases including COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.
IOM's camp coordination and camp management activities will focus on:
- Conducting site assessments at relevant locations;
- Providing solar lighting to common and central areas in displacement sites such as water points, shops, latrines.
IOM's water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) support will include:
- Provision of WASH infrastructures and services, including safe and sufficient water and sanitation services in communal transit centres for stranded migrants and returnees;
- Implementation of basic hygiene promotion activities, and provision of basic hygiene kits inclusive of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) kits for women and girls;
- Provision of WASH services (latrines, boreholes) in displacement sites in the Lac and the South.
Address the drivers and longer term impacts of crises and displacement through investments in recovery and crisis prevention
- Protracted displaced persons in Lac Province and southern Chad as well as local communities in which they reside.
IOM will work towards the progressive resolution of displacement situations for displaced people, returnees in the south and IDPs in the Lake Chad Basin area, considering mobility solutions as appropriate, in line with IOM's Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations Framework (PRDS) IOM's interventions will include:
- Supporting local authorities to identify opportunities for enhancement of IDP or returnee sites into functioning communities with access to socio-economic infrastructures;
- Supporting community members to link their pre-displacement habitual livelihood with the realities of the displacement area of arrival;
- Supporting the formalization of representation and conflict resolution mechanisms previously established between traditional and administrative authorities.
IOM will support communities in addressing the root causes of instability by:
- Providing access to community decision-making structures for all community members (including women, youth, migrants, mobile populations, traditional and administrative authorities);
- Providing alternative means of livelihood and participating in decision-making processes in Chad’s border regions, building on Do No Harm principles;
- Enhancing institutional capacities to secure and manage Chadian borders by strengthening the engagement with communities and developing more coherent approaches to border management;
- Supporting communities and authorities to provide identity management access as the basis for civic engagement in the country;
- Supporting community-based natural resource management mechanisms focused on safe and dignified labour conditions, equitable access and linkages with the national natural resource management structures by supporting local mediation and peacebuilding efforts for communities in the centre-north, where appropriate;
- Organizing social cohesion activities for communities in the south along the transhumance corridor, to work with local governance structures in communities where transhumance movements may trigger tensions with resident communities. Communities will further benefit from monitoring through the transhumance tracking tool;
- Providing sustainable access to water and sanitation services through the support of improved water and sanitation infrastructure to rural population in covered areas of interventions as well as structuring community management and maintenance committee.
IOM's peacebuilding and peace preservation initiatives will include:
- Supporting communities, in a joint approach with other partners, in central and northern Chad to provide alternative livelihoods for youth, supporting youth engagement in community processes, and sensitize youth about the risks related to irregular migration to the north;
- Supporting through an innovative community-based approach, in Borkou, Ennedi-Ouest, and Tibesti, peaceful and conscientious natural resource management by engaging with the traditional and administrative authorities, youth and women to also develop strategies for sustainable solutions;
- Supporting herder and farmer communities to reduce tensions linked to resource management and conflict surrounding transhumance movements in southern Chad through a joint approach with other partners.
- People at risk of being displaced or affected by disasters, notably for risks related to natural hazards;
- Local authorities.
IOM will support local authorities and the Directorate for Civil Protection to reduce the risk of disasters through:
- Implementing small-scale infrastructural mitigation works, notably to address floods risk;
- Mapping of potential risks and safe areas along identified hazardous zones (i.e. prone to the risk of flooding and wildfires);
- Building the capacity of knowledge management within the government response mechanisms;
- Awareness-raising and support to communities to understand risks and implement preventive practices as well as capacity building on building back safer;
- Developing an early warning system on meteorological hazards in close coordination and partnership with the Chadian Civil Protection;
- Implementing the emergency tracking tool (ETT) to provide information on sudden displacements caused by natural hazards, the profiles of displaced persons, as well as conditions and needs of those displaced.
In order to support emergency preparedness IOM plans to:
Support the establishment of community contingency planning through community-based workshops, ensuring equal participation of women, persons with disability and older persons. Local prepositioning of shelter and NFI kits in order to be able to provide life- saving assistance following a shock.
- Humanitarian and nexus/development actors active in the wider response in Lac Province, for instance agropastoral organizations, local authorities and transhumant and farmer communities; the Rapid Response Mechanism and other immediate responders; actors involved in transition & recovery; specific humanitarian actors.
IOM's data collection and analysis initiatives will include:
- Displacement tracking in Lac Province (through implementation of rounds of DTM’s Mobility Tracking methodology, which gathers information on estimates of the number of displaced persons, on the profiles of displaces populations, on access to services and living conditions, and on priority needs and assistance);
- Implementing the emergency tracking tool country wide, to collect and report immediate data on, but not limited to, sudden displacements, collective expulsion, forced returns, climatic emergencies, in order to inform life-saving assistance;
- Conducting return intentions surveys in Lac Province to collect information on displaced persons’ intentions, as well as the conditions necessary for a sustainable return or integration;
- Conducting flow monitoring of people on the move in key transit points in the country, especially along routes encompassing high rates of irregular migration and movements of vulnerable migrants, in order to gather the amplitude of migration along these routes, migrants’ profiles and vulnerabilities.
- Implementing the stability index, as key to the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, with the purpose of assessing the level of stability of areas hosting displaced populations in the Lac Province and to highlight factors the most influencing this level of stability. The objective is to allow targeted programming in localities according to their stability and thus to allow coherent interventions that link humanitarian, transition and development approaches according to the situation of localities.
- Rolling out of the transhumance tracking tool (TTT) in southern and eastern Chad, to collect data on transhumance flows and emergency situations surrounding transhumance, aiming at informing programmes on prevention and management of conflicts related to transhumance and pastoralism.
Figures are as of 31 December 2020. For more details of IOM's operational capacity in country, please see the IOM Capacity section.